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Specific cases of cliticization

The formal relation between function words with an independent and a dependent status can be phonological in nature − as with him /hɪm/ ~ 'em /əm/ him −, but it may also be phonologically opaque, as with the pair hy /hi/ or hij /hɛj/ ~ er /ər/ he. Although hy/hij and er have the same meaning, there is not a formal, phonological relation between them. Despite the different relations between the independent and the dependent form of function words, they all must be considered as independent, separate lexical entries.