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The dialect of Hylpen

Hylpersk distinguishes between strong and weak agreement in the common gender singular.


The main deviation is that Hylpersk distinguishes in the common gender singular between strong and weak agreement as well, whereas Standard Frisian only distinguishes these two in the neuter singular.

Minimal pair strong and weak agreement in the common gender:

Example 1

a. In graet-en bolle
a big.CG.SA bull
A big bull
b. De graete bolle
the big.CG.WA bull
The big bull

The following table shows what the system of attributive adjectival inflection looks like in Hylpersk:

Table 1
Weak Strong
Common Gender e en
Neuter Gender e -
Plural e e
Substance adjectives in Standard Frisian end in -en, and regularly fail to have the schwa signaling attributive agreement. Hylpersk, however, has the schwa or -en where it is required by the system of attributive agreement, which may lead to three successive syllables with a schwa:

Example 2

a. In golden-en / sulveren-en ryng
a golden.CG.SA silver.CG.SA ring
A golden / silver ring
b. De golden-e / sulveren-e ryng
the golden.CG.WA silver.CG.WA ring
The golden / silver ring

The past participle of JE-verbs ends in -e in Standard Frisian, and this ending resists being used in attributive contexts. Old Frisian JE-verbs ended in -ed. In the dialect of Hylpen, the past participle of JE-verbs retains the -d when it is used as an adjective, and attributive agreement may be appended to this ending:

Example 3

a. In mekked-en jurk
a made.CG.SA dress
A handmade dress
b. De farved-e dôr
the painted.CG.WA door
The painted door

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More details can be found in Boer (1950:118-119).

  • Boer, Bernardus de1950Studie over het dialect van HindeloopenAssenVan Gorcum & Comp.