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Predication and noun incorporation

Predication may involve a Verb Phrase (VP) that is predicated of an argument. The relation between the predicate, the VP, and the argument may be modified by a copula, also called an aspectual verb, which provides an outer structure for the predicate and the argument. An example of a predication is provided below, in which the defining elements of a predication have been identified:

Table 1
Argument Copula Predicate
Gemma bliuwt stean
Gemma stays stand
Gemma stays standing
There are three types of predicative constructions. In a complementive construction, the presence of the predicate is required by the verb. Copulas may be involved in a relation of intransitive predication between a predicate and an argument. This argument functions as the subject in simple sentences. The set of copulas involved includes: wêze be, gean go, bliuwe stay, komme come and the copulas of quasi body posture such as sitte sit. modals such as moatte must and meie may can likewise mediate in a predication relation between an argument and a predicate. It is investigated if and to what extent these copulas combine with ordinary infinitives, gerundial infinitives, to-infinitives and infinitival clauses.

Copulas of quasi body posture involve the predication of a location of a subject. Such copulas may also combine with to-infinitives. In the latter case, their locative interpretation is downplayed, and they acquire an aspectual interpretation. Two examples are given below:

a. It potlead stiet op tafel
the pencil stand on table
The pencil is standing on the table
b. As er dêr sa yn 'e doar stie te kjeldskypjen
when he there so in the doar stood to cold.catch
When he stood there in the door, catching a cold

A transitive predication consists of a transitive copula such as hawwe have or krije get, selecting a predicate, of which the subject is realised in the direct object position of the transitive copula. The copula and its structural subject provide the outer structure for the predication, the embedded predication consists of a direct object and a predicate. Two examples are given below:

a. Marten hat de Bibel op 'e knibbel
Marten has the Bible on the knee
Marten has the Bible on his knee
b. Marten hat de frou siik
Marten has the wife ill
Marten's wife is ill

In supplementive and appositive constructions, there is no copula to join predicate and argument. The predicate is an optional addition to a nominal argument. The following example illustrates the supplementive construction:

Gurbe sljurke laitsjende by de sleatswâl del
Gurbe slid laughing at the ditch.side down
Gurbe slid down the side of the ditch laughing

In appositive structures, the predication is not integrated in the syntactic structure, as signalledd by the comma intonation. An example is provided below:

Gurbe, laitsjende, sljurke by de sleatswâl del
Gurbe laughing slid at the ditch.side down
Gurbe, laughing, slid down the side of the ditch
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