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List of common words and their glosses
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Below are lists of common and/or frequent Afrikaans words with their glosses and translations.

  • Within a bullet, examples are arranged from more fine-grained (typically used in morphological analyses), to more general (typically used in example sentences where the particular word is not the focus of discussion).

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[+]The verb wees be.INF to be

These cases are also included alphabetically in the list below.

  • Infinitive form: wees be.INF to be
  • Present tense form: is be.PRS to be OR is is is
    • Optional: independentis in Sy is in die huis she be.INDEP.PRS in the house She is in the house (i.e. when not used to link an attribute to a subject, but rather a location)
    • Optional: copulais in Sy is mooi she be.COP.PRS pretty She is pretty
  • Past tense form: ge·wees PST·be been OR gewees be.PST been
  • Preterite form: was be.PRT was OR was was was (both as independent ( be.INDEP.PRT) and copula ( be.COP.PRT) verb)
  • Passive voice (present tense form): word be.AUX.PASS.PRS is
  • Passive voice (past tense form): is be.AUX.PASS.PST was
  • Passive voice (preterite form): was be.AUX.PASS.PRT was (in Nadat die kraan toegedraai was ...)
  • Note one of the past tense forms of "to go":
    is go.PST went (in Hy is Kaap toe He went to the Cape)

[+]Examples of lexical verbs

  • "aanbring": separable complex verb (with different forms)
    • aan+bring [[aan](PREP.PTCL)[bring](V)](V) on+bring.PRS to affix OR aanbring on.bring.PRS to affix OR aanbring on.bring to affix
    • aan+ge·bring on+PST·bring affixed OR aangebring on.bring.PST affixed
  • "baseer": main verb without overt past tense prefix
    • ø·baseer PST·base based OR baseer base.PST based
  • "breek": main verb (with different forms and participles)
    • Infinitive form: breek break.INF to break
    • Present tense form: breek break.PRS to break OR breek break to break
    • Infinitive form (overtly marked): iets te brek·e (< breek·e) something PTCL.INF break·INF something to break OR iets te breke something PTCL.INF break.INF
    • Past tense form: ge·breek PST·break broke OR gebreek break.PST broke
    • Passive voice form: ge·breek PASS·break broke OR gebreek break.PASS broke
    • Present participle: brek·end (< breek·end) break·PRS.PTCP breaking OR brekend break.PRS.PTCP breaking
    • Past participle (strong form): gebroke break.PST.PTCP broken
    • Past participle (weak form): ge·breek PST.PTCP·break broken OR gebreek break.PST.PTCP broken
    • Past participle (weak form, used attributively): ge·breek·t·e PST.PTCP·break·PST.PTCP·ATTR broken OR gebreekte break.PST.PTCP.ATTR broken

[+]Particles

These particles – with the exception of verbal particles and conjunctive particles – are also included alphabetically in the list below.

  • aan PTCL.V on in Hy skakel die lig aan He switches the light on
    • The particle aan is provided here as a prototypical example of a verbal particle that is part of a separable complex verb.
    Depending on the viewpoint, some constituents like these could be analysed as verbal particles, adverbs, adjectives, or intransitive adpositions.
  • al PTCL.COL all (in al die penne all the pens)
    Depending on the viewpoint, this al could also be analysed as a numeral.
  • as PTCL.SIMT than (in groter as 'n huis bigger than a house)
  • die PTCL.SUPL the (in die grootste huis the biggest house)
    Depending on the viewpoint, this die could also be analysed as an article.
  • en PTCL.LINK and in Hy sit en werk he sit.LINK PTCL.LINK werk.INF He is working
  • en PTCL.CNJ and (in beide Anna en Sarah both Anna and Sarah; in Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands Department of Afrikaans and Dutch; twee en twintig two PTCL.CNJ twenty twenty two)
    • A couple of other conjunction particles can be found as the second part of correlative coordinating conjunctions, like én … én and … and; óf … óf either … or; nóg … nóg neither … nor; etc; and correlative subordinating conjunctions, like hoe … hoe; namate … des te; etc.
  • na PTCL.SIMT like; of (in Dit ruik na kaas It smells like/of cheese)
  • ne=s (< net=soos) just=PTCL.SIMT just like OR nes PTCL.SIMT just like OR nes just.like just like
  • nie PTCL.NEG not (in Sy is nie moeg nie she is not tired PTCL.NEG She is not tired)
  • se PTCL.GEN -'s (in Anna se pen Anna's pen)
  • so PTCL.SIMT as and soos PTCL.SIMT as, like (in so groot soos 'n huis as big as 'n house)
    The same similative particles are used in equative constructions, and are therefore also glossed as PTCL.SIMT in such constructions.
  • so PTCL.REL such; otherwise (in Kom jy? So nie ry ek. come you PTCL not drive I Are you coming? Otherwise I'm leaving.)
    Depending on the viewpoint, this so could also be analysed as a relative pronoun.
  • te PTCL.CMPR too OR te too too (in te mooi vir woorde PTCL.CMPR pretty for words too pretty for words)
    Depending on the viewpoint, this te could also be analysed as an adverb.
  • te PTCL.INF (in om te speel for.COMP PTCL.INF play.INF to play)
  • van PTCL.GEN of (in die pen van Anna the pen of Anna)
    Depending on the viewpoint, this van could also be analysed as a preposition.
  • van PTCL.PTV of (in drie van Anna se penne three of Anna's pens)
  • wat PTCL.REL what in Wat 'n verrassing! What a surprise!

[+]Alphabetical list

  • aan='t (< aan=het) werk on=the work is working
  • al PTCL.COL all (in al die penne all the pens)
  • as PTCL.SIMT than (in groter as 'n huis bigger than a house)
  • daar there.EXIST there (in Daar is hoop There is hope)
  • daar+op PN+on on it/that OR daarop PN.on on it/that OR daarop there.on on it/that
  • dag think.PRT thought
  • dat that.COMP that
  • den the.DAT.M the (in om den brode for the money)
  • der the.DAT.F the (in in der minne skik to settle amicably)
  • des the.GEN.M|N the (in steen des aanstoots a cause of annoyance)
  • die PTCL.SUPL the (in die grootste huis the biggest house)
  • die the the (in die vrou the woman)
  • d=is (< dit=is) it=be.COP it's OR dis it.be.PRS it's OR dis it.is it's
  • dog think.PRT thought
  • en PTCL.LINK and in Hy sit en werk he sit.LINK PTCL.LINK werk.INF He is working
  • en PTCL.CNJ and (in beide Anna en Sarah both Anna and Sarah; in Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands Department of Afrikaans and Dutch; twee en twintig two PTCL.CNJ twenty twenty two)
  • en and and (in Anna en Sarah is getroud Anna and Sarah be.PRS married Anna and Sarah are married)
  • ge·wees PST·be been OR gewees be.PST been
  • "het" as an independent verb with the sense 'to possess'
    • het have.PRS to have (in Hy het twee honde He has/owns two poodles)
    • had have.PRT had (in Hy had twee honde He had (owned) two poodles)
  • "het" as an auxiliary of tense
    • het have.AUX have (in Die koppie het gebreek The cup has broken)
    • had have.AUX.PRT had (in God had hulle aan mekaar as naastes geskenk God had given them to one another as neighborsVivA-KPO)
  • hier+op PN+on on it/this OR hierop PN.on on it/this OR hierop here.on on it/this
  • hoef need.AUX.MOD need
  • is be.PRS to be OR in contexts where it is deemed necessary to mark it explicitly OR is is is
    • Optional: independentis in Sy is in die huis she be.INDEP.PRS in the house She is in the house (i.e. when not used to link an attribute to a subject, but rather a location)
    • Optional: copulais in Sy is mooi she be.COP.PRS pretty She is pretty
  • is be.AUX.PASS.PST was (in passive voice construction)
  • is go.PST went (in Hy is Kaap toe He went to the Cape)
  • kan can.AUX.MOD can
  • kon can.AUX.MOD.PRT
  • mag may.AUX.MOD may
  • moe=nie (< moet=nie) must.AUX.MOD=not mustn't; shouldn't OR moenie must.not.AUX.MOD mustn't; shouldn't OR optionally, depending on the mood, moenie must.not.AUX.MOD.IMP don't
  • moes must.AUX.MOD.PRT must have
  • moet must.AUX.MOD must
  • mog may.AUX.MOD.PRT might
  • mos surely surely
  • na PTCL.SIMT like; of (in Dit ruik na kaas It smells like/of cheese)
  • not.so isn't el it; right
  • ne=s (< net=soos) just=PTCL.SIMT just like OR nes PTCL.SIMT just like OR nes just.like just like
  • net soos just PTCL.SIMT just like
  • nie not not TOGETHER WITH nie PTCL.NEG ... (in Sy breek nie koppies nie she break not cups PTCL.NEG She doesn't break cups)
  • of if.COMP if
  • of or.CNJ or OR of or or
  • om for.COMP for/... (in Gebruik dit om te eet use it for.COMP PTCL.INF eat.INF Use it for eating OR Iets om te eet something for.COMP PTCL.INF eat.INF Something to eat)
  • probeer try.LINK to try
  • sal will.AUX will (auxiliary of tense)
  • sal will.AUX.MOD shall (modal auxiliary)
  • sal shall.AUX.MOD shall (modal auxiliary used as a directive, e.g. in legal documents)
  • se PTCL.GEN -'s (in Anna se pen Anna's pen)
  • sou want.to.AUX.MOD.PRT would have
  • so PTCL.SIMT as and soos PTCL.SIMT as, like (in so groot soos 'n huis as big as 'n house)
  • so PTCL.REL such; otherwise (in Kom jy? So nie ry ek. come you PTCL not drive I Are you coming? Otherwise I'm leaving.)
  • te PTCL.INF to (in om te speel for.COMP PTCL.INF play.INF to play)
  • te PTCL.CMPR too OR te too too (in te mooi vir woorde PTCL.CMPR pretty for words too pretty for words)
  • te at.PREP at OR te at at
  • te=n (< te=den) at=the.DAT.M|N at OR ten at.the at (in ten minste at least)
  • te=r (< te=der) at=the.DAT.F at OR ter at.the at (in ter plaatse at this place, here)
  • toe when when (in Toe die wêreld nog jonk was when the world still young be.PRT When the world was still young)
  • toe to.POSTP to (in Sy is huis toe she go.PST house to.POSTP She went home)
  • toe closed closed (in Die deur is toe The door is closed)
  • tog after.all after all
  • u you.2SG.HON you (formal) ("2" is optional)
  • u you.2PL.HON you (formal) ("2" is optional)
  • van PTCL.GEN of (in die pen van Anna the pen of Anna)
  • van PTCL.PTV of (in drie van Anna se penne three of Anna's pens)
  • waar+op REL+on on which OR waarop REL.on on which OR waarop where.on on which
  • was be.PRT was (both as independent ( be.INDEP.PRT) and copula ( be.COP.PRT) verb)
  • was be.AUX.PASS.PRT was (in Nadat die kraan toegedraai was ...)
  • was wash.PRS to wash
  • wat that.REL that
  • wat PTCL.REL what in Wat 'n verrassing! What a surprise!
  • wees be.INF to be
  • wil want.to.AUX.MOD want to
  • word be.AUX.PASS.PRS is
  • wou want.to.AUX.MOD.PRT wanted to

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