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Compounding
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Compounding is the concatenative word formation process where two or more roots (specifically combination forms), stems, words, and phrases are combined to form a new word. For instance, the word eet+kamer dining room is a compound formed from the nouns eet to eat and tafel table, while morf·o+logie is a compound formed from the roots morf- and -logie, together with the interfix-o-.

In analyses, a plus sign (+) is used to indicate boundaries between stems/roots in compounds; the middle dot (·) is used before interfixes (and before/after other affixes); the division sign is used for affixoids (÷); an underscore ( _ ) is used for univerbations.

Extending Van Huyssteen and Verhoeven's taxonomy of compounding for Afrikaans and Dutch (2014), which was based on the work of Scalise and Bisetto (2009), the taxonomy in the figure below presents an overview of compounding in Afrikaans. This taxonomy also serves to structure the topics discussed on Taalportaal.

Van Huyssteen and Verhoeven (2014:36) excluded reduplication as a form of compounding, while it is included here under the rubric reduplicative compound. What they called a "compounding compound" is called a compositional compound here.

Figure 1: Taxonomy of compounding in Afrikaans

[click image to enlarge]

In addition to the classification above, Afrikaans compounds can be classified according to the word class of their heads. The most productive types are nominal compounds and adjectival compounds, while verbal compounds are in principle unproductive. These kinds of compounds are discussed in detail under subordinative compounds.

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[+]Prototypical examples

Table 1
Semosyntactic type Morphosyntactic type Morphosemantic type POS of constituent 1 POS of constituent 2 POS of compound Prototypical semantic relations Example Gloss Translation
Subordinative Verbal-nexus Endocentric N V·ADJZ ADJ of; have; in; by; for; about hand+vervaardig·de hand+produce·ADJZ hand-made
N V·NMLZ N of; have; in; by; for; about gras+sny·er grass+cut·NMLZ lawn mower
V V·N,LZ N of; have; in; by; for; about eet+staak·ing > eetstaking eat+strike·NMLZ hunger strike
ADJ V·NMLZ N of; have; in; by; for; about kaal+nael·er naked+run·NMLZ streaker
ADV V·PTCP ADJ of; have; in; by; for; about dig+bebos·te thick+afforest·ADJZ thickly wooded
Ground Endocentric N N N of; have; in; by; for; about tafel+poot table+leg table leg
N ADJ ADJ of; have; in; by; for; about kleur+blind colour+blind colour blind
PREP N N of; have; in; by; for; about buite+kamer outside+room outside room
NUM N N of; have; in; by; for; about twee+klank two+sound diphthong
V N N of; have; in; by; for; about stryk+plank iron+board ironing board
N V V of; have; in; by; for; about raad+pleeg advice+commit to consult
Exocentric V N V of; have; in; by; for; about knip+oog snip+eye to wink
V N N of; have; in; by; for; about suip+lap booze+cloth drunkard
V N ADV of; have; in; by; for; about druip+stert drip+tail embarrassed
N N N of; have; in; by; for; about tronk+voël jail+bird jailbird
Phrasal Endocentric VP N N of; have; in; by; for; about skop-skiet-en-donder-film kick-shoot-and-hit-movie action movie
NP N N of; have; in; by; for; about kaas-en-wyn-onthaal cheese-and-wine-party cheese and wine party
(Neo-)Classical Endocentric root root N of; have; in; by; for; about hidro+logie hydro+logy hydrology
root N N of; have; in; by; for; about bio+brandstof bio+fuel biofuel
N root N of; have; in; by; for; about Japan+logie > Japannologie Japan+logy Japanese studies
Attributive Ground Endocentric ADJ N N is blou+draad blue+wire galvanised wire
NUM N N is tien+kamp ten+camp decathlon
ADV N N is terug+weg back+way the way back
ADV ADJ ADJ is donker+blond dark+blonde dark blonde
Exocentric ADJ N N is rooi+kop red+head person with red hair
Phrasal Endocentric AP N N is los-en-vas-praatjies loose-and-set-talks random chatting
NP N N is kop-aan-kop-botsing head-on-head-collision head-on collision
PP N N is in-die-kol-humor in-the-spot-humour spot-on humour
Appositive Ground Endocentric N N N is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like treffer+liedjie hit+song hit song
N ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like hond+mak dog+tame as tame as a dog
N ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like hond+lelik dog+ugly very ugly
N ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like stof+nat dust+wet sprinkled, superficially wet
V ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like spring+lewendig jump+lively alive and well
PREP ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like deur+nat through+wet soaked
Phrasal Endocentric VP ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like kielie-my-maag-lekker tickle-my-stomach-nice as nice as tickling my stomach
NP ADJ ADJ is; is, look, taste, feel, sound, smell like sonsak-in-Ibiza-mooi sunset-in-Ibiza-pretty sunset-in-Ibiza-pretty
Coordinative Ground Endocentric N N N and; or skrywer-boer writer-farmer writer-farmer
ADJ ADJ ADJ and; or stom+verbaas mute+surprised very surprised
V V V and; or sit-lê sit-lie sit and lie
PREP PREP PREP and voor+op before+above first
Compositional Phrasal Endocentric NP N N have groot+skerm+televisie big+screen+television big screen television
NP N N have twee+sitplek+motor two+seat+car two-seater
PP N N have buite+boord+motor out+board+motor outboard motor
Parasynthetic Phrasal Endocentric NP NMLZ N like groot+skaal-s large+scale·ADJZ large-scale
NP ADJZ ADJ with een+blaar·ig > eenblarig one+leaf·ADJZ monopetalous
VP NMLZ N that alleen+loop·er > alleenloper alone+walk·NMLZ loner
VP NMLZ N where; when ter+aarde+bestel·ing > teraardebestelling to+earth+deliver·NMLZ burial
Separable complex verbs Ground Endocentric PREP V V do in a direction in+gooi in+throw to throw in
ADV V V do in a manner neer+gooi down+throw to throw down
N V V of vleis+braai meat+roast to barbeque
Exocentric ADV ADJ V become aan+dik on+thick to exaggerate
Reduplicative Ground Endocentric V V V simultaneously; duratively; tentatively vat-vat touch-touch to touch tentatively
ADJ ADJ ADJ intensive lang-lang long-long very long
ADV ADV ADV in immediate vicinity of G; imperfective; iterative; intensive; durative nou-nou now-now just now
NUM NUM ADV X by X; in groups of X twee-twee two-two in pairs of two
INTERJ INTERJ N onomatopoeic hoep-hoep hoop-hoop Upupa africana (name of a common South African garden bird)
INTERJ INTERJ ADV onomatopoeic doef-doef boom-boom pit-a-pat
Exocentric N N N game; real huis-huis house-house playing house
V V V easily lag-lag laugh-laugh easily
N N ADV distributive; scattered plek-plek place-place sporadically

[+]A note on compounding vs. univerbation

Compound words of non-lexical categories, such as conjunctions, have not been formed through compounding, but through univerbation. This is the case for conjunctions like omdat because and deurdat because, and complex prepositions such as agterop at/on the back, behind. For a discussion of cases like these, see the topic on univerbation.

References:
  • Scalise, S. & Bisetto, A2009The Oxford Handbook of CompoundingThe classification of compoundsOxford: Oxford University Press34–53
  • Van Huyssteen, G.B. & Verhoeven, B2014A taxonomy for Afrikaans and Dutch compounds.(In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2104) The first workshop on Computational Approaches to Compond Analysis (ComAComA) Dublin <ireland. pp. 31-40.)
  • Van Huyssteen, G.B. & Verhoeven, B2014A taxonomy for Afrikaans and Dutch compounds.(In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2104) The first workshop on Computational Approaches to Compond Analysis (ComAComA) Dublin <ireland. pp. 31-40.)
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