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6.2.Non-main verbs selecting a participle

There are basically two types of non-main verbs selecting a participle: (i) the perfect auxiliaries hebben'to have' and zijn'to be' are used to form the perfect tenses and (ii) the passive auxiliaries worden'to be', zijn'to have been' and krijgen'to get' are used to form passive constructions. Examples of the two types are given in (12). We will discuss the perfect and passive auxiliaries in separate sections.

a. Jan heeft het boek gelezen.
perfect auxiliary
  Jan has  the book  read
  'Jan has read the book.'
b. Het boek wordt (door Jan) gelezen.
passive auxiliary
  the book  is   by Jan  read
  'The book is read (by Jan).'
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