• Dutch
  • Frisian
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-ies (ADJZ) (geographical)

{UNDER CONSTRUCTION} This topic is under construction, and will be released soon.

Table 1
Formal category Suffix
Functional category Adjectiviser (ADJZ)
Orthographic form -ies (e.g. Bangladesj·ies Bangladeshi; Israel·ies Israeli)
Phonological form /is/
Phonological properties
  • Cohering
  • Stress-shifting (fixing)
Allomorphs None
Semantic properties (meaning) [related to SEM(X)]
Input restrictions: categories
  • Proper noun (PR), specifically geographical proper names (Israel·ies Israeli)
  • Note that the related demonym (also considered a proper noun) sometimes serves as base (Russ·ies Russian < Rus·land Russia, with demonym Rus Russian)
Input restrictions: stratum Not applicable
Output: categories Adjectives (ADJ)
Output: morphological potential
  • Not available for derivational suffixation
  • Available for negative prefixes (e.g. on- or nie-)
  • Available for attributive -e
  • Depending on the semantics, it is also available for degrees of comparison with meer and mees
  • There is a limited number of combinations with the interfix -it-
  • [[x](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](A) (Israel·ies Israeli)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{i·ë}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Australië Australia > Austral·ies Australian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{e}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Egipte Egypt > Egipt·ies Egyptian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{a}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Alaska Alaska > Alask·ies Alaskan)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{os}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Lesbos Lesbos > Lesb·ies Lesbian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{us}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Siprus Cyprus > Sipr·ies Cyprian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x](PR)[it](LK)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (Kanaän Canaan > Kanaän·it·ies Canaanite)
  • Fully productive

  • Competes with -s

Etymology (stratum) Classic
English equivalent -(a)n; -ian-in(e); -ite; -er; -ish (see Wikipedia)
Dutch equivalent -isch

Afrikaans geographical adjectiviser -ies behaves the same as Dutch geographical adjectiviser -isch. While Afrikaans also have a geographical adjectiviser -s like Dutch, Afrikaans does not use -er as a geographical adjectiviser like in Dutch.

This description of -ies is based by and large on Van Huyssteen and Davel (2010), and De Haas and Trommelen (1993:331-334).


{UNDER CONSTRUCTION} This topic is under construction, and will be released soon.

  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Van Huyssteen, G.B. & Davel, M2010Learning rules and categorization networks for language standardization.Bundels
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