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-ies (ADJZ) (geographical)

This topic is still under development.

Table 1
Formal category Derivational suffix
Functional category Adjectiviser (ADJZ)
Orthographic form -ies (e.g. Bangladesj·iesBangladeshi; Israel·iesIsraeli)
Phonological form /is/
Phonological properties
  • Cohering
  • Stress-shifting (fixing)
Allomorphs None
Semantic properties (meaning) [related to SEM(X)]
Input restrictions: categories
  • Proper noun (PR), specifically geographical proper names (Israel·iesIsraeli)
  • Note that the related demonym (also considered a proper noun) sometimes serves as base (Russ·iesRussian < Rus·landRussia, with demonym RusRussian)
Input restrictions: stratum Not applicable
Output: categories Adjectives (ADJ)
Output: morphological potential
  • Not available for derivational suffixation
  • Available for negative prefixes (e.g. on- or nie-)
  • Available for inflection with attributive -e
  • Depending on the semantics, it is also available for degrees of comparison with meer and mees
  • We also observe a limited number of combinations with the interfix -it-
  • [[x](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](A) (Israel·iesIsraeli)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{i·ë}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (AustraliëAustralia > Austral·iesAustralian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{e}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (EgipteEgypt > Egipt·iesEgyptian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{a}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (AlaskaAlaska > Alask·iesAlaskan)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{os}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (LesbosLesbos > Lesb·iesLesbian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x·...{us}](PR)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (SiprusCyprus > Sipr·iesCyprian)
  • Sub-schema: [[x](PR)[it](LK)[ies](ADJZ)](ADJ) (KanaänCanaan > Kanaän·it·iesCanaanite)
  • Fully productive

  • Competes with -s

Etymology (stratum) Classic
English equivalent -(a)n; -ian-in(e); -ite; -er; -ish (see Wikipedia)
Dutch equivalent -isch

Afrikaans geographical adjectiviser -ies behaves the same as Dutch geographical adjectiviser -isch. While Afrikaans also have a geographical adjectiviser -s like Dutch, Afrikaans does not use -er as a geographical adjectiviser like in Dutch.

This description of -ies is based by and large on Van Huyssteen and Davel (2010) and De Haas and Trommelen (1993:331-334).


This topic is still under development.

  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Van Huyssteen, G.B. & Davel, M2010Learning rules and categorization networks for language standardization.Bundels
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