• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-t
quickinfo

-t/t/ is an unproductive Germanic cohering stress-neutral suffix found in nouns of common gender based on Germanic verb stems, e.g. teelt[telt]cultivation < teel[tel]to grow. Nouns in -t typically denote things (e.g. hefthilt < hefto lift) or abstract concepts (e.g. klachtcomplaint < klagencomplain); semantic specialization is quite common (e.g. schrift < schrijvto write can both mean writing (system) and notebook). The plural form, if applicable, is in -en (schriftenwriting systems, notebooks ).

readmore

-t/t/ is a Germanic suffix found in nouns based on simplex Germanic verb stems.

[hide extra information]
x

Words like schoonschriftcalligraphy and bloementeeltfloriculture are compounds with -t formations as right-hand members, not to be taken as exceptions to the generalization that -t takes only simplex stems; cf. formations such as mesheftknife handle where there is no complex verb *mesheffen. inteeltinbreeding, on the other hand, is a calque from German Inzucht or English inbreeding (Etymologiebank).

Nouns in -t are of common gender, taking the definite singular article de. The plural form, if applicable, is in -en (schriftenwriting systems, notebooks, klachtencomplaints).
[hide extra information]
x

There is quite some stem allomorphy in -t formations, De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 246) mention jachthunt (< jagento hunt), klachtcomplaint (< klagento complain), drachtgestation, costume, load (< dragento carry, to wear), bochtcurve, bend (< buigento bend), driftpassion, drift (drijvento float, to drift), vluchtflight, flock (< vliegento fly), giftgift, present (< gevento give), plichtduty (< plegento commit), schriftwriting, notebook (< schrijvento write), zichtview (< ziento see), ziftsift (< zevento sieve). Certain -t formations have a verbal use as well, e.g. vluchtto escape, ziftento sift, to split hairs, jachtento hurry, to rush.

Note that another suffix -t can be distinguished in non-native nouns such as fantastdreamer and productproduct that correspond to nouns in -ie or verbs in -eren (fantasiephantasy and producerento produce, respectively) (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 226-7), as well as in non-native adjectives like abstractabstract, correctcorrect and corruptcorrupt that correspond to verbs in -eren (abstraherento abstract, corrigerento corrrect and corrumperento corrupt) (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 343). It is questionable, however, whether these relationships of form and meaning belong to the morphology of Dutch.

The suffix merges with the final syllable of the stem, i.e., it is cohering; the stress pattern of the base does not change with suffixation of -t.

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
cite
print