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Finite declarative complement clauses

Finite declarative complement clauses are widely used in Afrikaans. The older form of the clause, that corresponds to the form in Dutch, has an overt complementiser dat that, which introduces the complement clause. These complement clauses have the verb-final word order of a dependent clause, as illustrated in (1). An innovative form that developed from the late eighteenth century and become established as variant by the late nineteenth century is the complement clause without a complementiser, which has the verb-second word order of a main clause, as illlustrated by example (2).

Die kinders moet weet [dat elke droom bereikbaar is].
Die kinders moet weet [(CC) [(COMP) dat] [(SUB) elke droom] [(COMPLM) bereikbaar] [(VF) is]]
the children must know that every dream attainable is
The children must know that every dream is attainable.
Die kinders weet [hul ma is gevind].
Die kinders weet [(CC) [(SUB) hul ma] [(V2) is] [(VF) gevind]]
the children know their mother was found
The children know their mother has been found.

Finite declarative complement clauses can be used as object clauses, especially with communication and mental verbs, as example (1) and (2) both illustrate. They can also be used as subject or predicate/complementive clauses, as illustrated by (3) and (4) respectively. In these cases, the form with the overt complementiser is normally the only available variant, and the omission of the complement clause is rare.

[Dat hulle baie erg oor mekaar is], is seker.
[(CC) [(COMP) dat] [(SUB) hulle] [(COMPLM) baie erg oor mekaar] [(VF) is]] is seker
that they very fond about each.other are is certain
That they are very fond about each other is certain.
Die verwagting is dat olie duur gaan bly.
Die verwagting is [(CC) [(COMP) dat] [(SUB) olie] [(COMPLM) duur] [(VF) gaan bly]]
the expectation is that oil expensive go stay
The expectation is that oil will remain expensive.

Finite declarative complement clauses are described in the following sections:

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