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The prefix efter- derives nouns from other nouns. It is used for kinship terms. Derivation with efter- denotes a relative in a more distant degree than the one named in the base. An example is nicht cousin > efternicht second cousin.

[+]General properties

In fact, efter- is more of a prefixoid, as it derives from the preposition efter behind. It creates nouns from other nouns, or to be more precise, kinship terms. A derivation with efter- denotes a relative in a more distant degree than the one described in the base. Examples of derivations with the prefix efter- are listed below.

Table 1
Base form Derivation
neef cousin efterneef second cousin (male)
nicht cousin efternicht second cousin (female)
bernsbern grandchild(ren) efterbernsbern great-grandchild(ren)

The prefix efter- can also be found in the now obsolete forms eftersus(ter)ling second cousin and eftertrutling distant relative.

Theoretically, there may be endless recursion when using efter-, but in reality forms like efterefterefternicht fourth cousin will be difficult find (cf. bet-).

[+]Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [ɛftər]. In the derivations the stress is on the prefix, for example as EFTERneef second cousin).

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This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:65).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy