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In this section, the focus is on a particular type of adjective with a PP complement, namely pseudo-participles. Pseudo-participles are adjectives which have the same form as past participles, but for which no corresponding verbs exist. In Afrikaans, they can be identified by the presence of (ostensible) prefixes before the stem, such as ge-, be- or ver-. However, since prefixes do not occur in past participles if some other component than the first is stressed (for example, het ondergrawe have undermined), pseudo-participles may also take on the morphonological form of such a construction. Examples of both categories are given below:

Example 1

verwant aan die flambojante paradysvoëls
related to the flamboyant paradise birds
Example 2

onderhewig aan sekere voorwaardes
subject to certain conditions

Pseudo-participles which take PPs as a complement, formally resemble the past participle of a putative verb, either through the presence of a prefix, or the corresponding morphonological form of such a participle, if a prefix is not required. However, they have no verbal function as main verbs, and only occur as adjectives, as in the following examples:

Example 3

Die party is gekant teen die voorgestelde wetgewing.
the party be.PRS opposed against the proposed legislation
The party is opposed to the proposed legislation.
Example 4

Haar aanstelling is onderworpe aan 'n proeftydperk van een jaar.
her appointment be.PRS subject to a trail period of one year
Her appointment is subject to a trial period of one year.

Relics from 17th century Dutch strong verb past participles form a distinctive class in this category. While the "regularised" pendants of pseudo-particles such as bedag (op) thoughtful (of), betrokke (by) involved (with) or ingenome (met) delighted (with), namely bedink considered, betrek involved and ingeneem taken in respectively represent the true past participles in verbal constructions, the strong past participles are restricted to adjectival functions, as illustrated below:

Example 5

gewaarsku om uiters bedag op seestrome te wees
warned for.COMP extremely attentive on sea.currents PTCL.INF be.INF
warned to be extremely cautious of sea currents
Example 6

Beide lande is nou betrokke by die politieke proses.
both countries be.PRS closely involved at the political process
Both countries are closely involved with the political process.
Example 7

Die aanklaer was ingenome met die uitspraak.
the prosecutor be.PRT delighted with the verdict
The prosecutor was delighted with the verdict.

As regards linear order, the adjective is normally placed to the left of the PP, but right placement may be favoured by factors such as emphasis, the use of R-pronouns, or of a subordinate or relative clause. Some examples of right placement follow:

Example 8

Die groep was glad nie by die ontvoerings betrokke nie.
the group was at.all not at the abductions involved PTCL.NEG
The group was not at all involved with the abductions.
Example 9

Wees daarop bedag.
be PN·on attentive
Be prepared for it.
Example 10

dat hulle teen die betoging gekant is
that they against the demonstration opposed be.PRS
that they are opposed to the demonstration
Example 11

materiaal wat moontlik aan handelsmerkwette onderhewig is
material that.REL possibly to trademark.laws subject be.PRS
material which is possibly subject to trademark laws
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