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Adjectives derived from je-verbs

Adjectives derived from the past participles of je-verbs may not be used as partitive adjectives.


Adjectives derived from je-verbs are subject to restrictions which adjectives derived from other verbs are not subject to. They may not occur in the partitive, as is shown below:

Example 1

a. De bôle is ferskimmele / útdroege
the bread is mouldy dried.out
The bread is mouldy / dried out
b. *Wat ferskimmel-e-s / útdroeg-e-s
something mouldy.PSTP.PA dried.out.PSTP.PA
Something that is mouldy / dried out

In spoken language, the je-verb is sometimes used as if it belonged to the normal (non je) verb class. This happens under the influence of Dutch, since it only happens if there is a similar Dutch equivalent. Now, the past participle ferskimmele grown mouldy is close to the Dutch past participle verschimmeld grown mouldy, but the past participle útdroege dried out is not close enough to Dutch uitgedroogd dried out. The difference between the two cases is that the past participial prefix ge- is present in uitgedroogd dried out, but not in verschimmeld grown mouldy. The following judgments obtain in spoken Frisian thanks to Dutch interference:

Example 2

a. Wat ferskimmelds
something mouldy
Something mouldy
b. *Wat út-ge-droegds / út-droegds
something out.GE.dried dried.out
Something that is dried out / dried out

Past participles can only occur in the construction in case they have an additional lexicalised subjective interpretation. For example, sean cooked cannot occur in the construction, but bedoarn spoiled can, in the context of spoiled food, as the latter is overlaid with a lexicalised subjective interpretation bad. The ungrammatical sentence below has the feel of an accidental gap, which is there for pragmatic reasons:

Example 3

a. *Ik ha wat seans iten
I have something cooked eaten
I have eaten something cooked
b. Ik ha wat bedoarns iten
I have something spoiled eaten
I have eaten something that is gone off