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The unproductive non-germanic prefix dis- takes foreign nominal bases to derive nouns. Its basic function is to indicate the opposite of the base, mostly with a negative or disapproving connotation. An example is disharmony disharmony, from harmony harmony.

[+]General properties

The non-germanic prefix dis- refers to the opposite of the base, often with a negative or disapproving connotation. It has largely the same function as ûn-) and wan-. The suffix is not productive. Examples are:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
harmony harmony disharmony disharmony
kwalifikaasje qualification diskwalifikaasje disqualification
kredyt credit diskredyt discredit
lokaasje location dislokaasje dislocation
oarder order disoarder disorder
plezier pleasure displezier displeasure

This foreign prefix takes bases of non-germanic origin, although bases like plezier pleasure and particularly oarder order will not be felt as such any longer. It can not be excluded that some derivations have been taken over in their entirety, for example from French "disordre".

[+]Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [dIs], but can be rounded to [døs], especially in the word disoarder disorder, which is therefore also spelled as dusoarder. The stress in the derivations is always on the prefix, for example in DISoarder disorder.


This prefix is mentioned in Hoekstra (1998:69)

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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