• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
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[+]Abbreviations of corpora

Table 1
Abbreviation Reference
ATKV-TG ATKV and CTexT. 2019. NWU/ATKV-Taalgenootkorpus 1.0 [NWU/ATKV Taalgenoot corpus 1.0]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
ATKV-TT ATKV and CTexT. 2018. NWU/ATKV-Tienertoneelkorpus 1.0 [NWU/ATKV teenager drama corpus 1.0]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
HCSA Kirsten, J. 2015. Historiese Korpus van Standaardafrikaans 1.0 [Historical Corpus of Standard Afrikaans 1.0]. Vanderbijlpark: North-West University.
Lapa Lapa-uitgewers and CTexT. 2015. NWU/Lapa corpus 1.3. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
Leipzig Goldhahn, D. Eckart, T. & Quasthoff, U. 2012. Building Large Monolingual Dictionaries at the Leipzig Corpora Collection: From 100 to 200 Languages. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12), 2012. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
Maroela Maroela Media and CTexT. 2015. NWU-Maroela Media corpus 1.5. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
NCHLT-A Department of Arts and Culture and CTexT. 2013. Afrikaans NCHLT Text Corpora. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. ISLRN: 544-932-849-161-3. Available: SADiLaR website
NWU-CC CTexT. 2019. NWU Kommentaarkorpus 1.2 [NWU Commentary Corpus 1.2]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
PCSA Ponelis, F.A. 1976. Ponelis Korpus van Gesproke Afrikaans 1.0 [Ponelis Corpus of Spoken Afrikaans 1.0]. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
Protea Protea Boekhuis and CTexT. 2015. PUK/Protea Boekhuis corpus 2.2. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
RSG Radio Sonder Grense and CTexT. 2015. RSG-nuuskorpus 2.3 [RSG news corpus 2.3]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
THT Tracing History Trust and CTexT. 2019. NWU/THT corpus 1.3. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
TK Taalkommissie van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns. 2011. Taalkommissiekorpus 1.1 [Language commission corpus 1.1]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
VivA-KPO Virtuele Instituut vir Afrikaans (VivA). 2020. Korpusportaal Omvattend: Versameling Afrikaanse korpusse [Corpus portal comprehensive: Collection Afrikaans corpora]. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
VivA-SP Virtuele Instituut vir Afrikaans (VivA). 2018. Spraakkorpus 1.0 [Speech corpus 1.0]. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
Wikipedia CTexT. 2019. CTexT Wikipedia-korpus 1.2 [CTexT Wikipedia corpus 1.2]. Potchefstroom: CTexT, North-West University. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.
WKJ WatKykJy. 2019. Watkykjy.co.za corpus 1.5. Available at: http://viva-afrikaans.org.

[hide extra information]

  • If an example was found via the search engine on VivA's corpus portal, and it is not necessarily important from which corpus the example was taken, the source is only indicated as VivA-KPO.
  • If an example is quoted from a specific novel, magazine, newspaper, etc., we use the same system that is used by the WAT, but with an international date format (yyyy/mm/dd).

Example 1

... wanneer die Maart+lelies begin blom ...
... when the March+lilies begin flower ...
... when the March lilies begin to flower ...
Example 2

Sy het opgelet hoe die lagplooitjies spekies in sy ooghoeke maak.
she have.AUX noted how the crow's.feet little.spokes in his eye.corners make
She noted how the crow's feet made little spokes in the corners of his eyes.
(C. du Toit: Huisg., 1973/09/14, 70)
Example 3

… 'n speek in die wiel ...
… a spoke in the wheel ...
(Landbw., 2005/02/15, 94)
[+]Abbreviations of dictionaries

Table 2
Abbreviation Dictionary
ANW Algemeen Nederlands Woordenboek (Instituut voor de Nederlandse Taal 2001-)

[hide extra information]
Rules in the AWS

In references, AWS-11, 12,37.a means rule 12.37, comment (a) in the eleventh edition of the Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls. When another edition of the AWS is used, it is indicated with the relevant number of the particular edition, e.g. AWS-3(Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns 1921).

[hide extra information]
Software-specific: ling.dita 2.4 in oXygen (XML)

  • When referring to AWS-11:
    • Preferred:
      According to AWS-11, rule 12.37.a …

      According to AWS-11, 12.37.a ...

    • Also acceptable:
      According to rule 12.37.a in AWS-11

Example 4

bullebak, -ke
bully, -PL
bully, bullies
AWS-11, 12.37.a
  • When referring to online dictionaries (e.g. WNT, WAT), and especially dictionaries in repositories or portals (e.g. PharosAanlyn, VivA, Etymologiebank), add reference to the specific dictionary, but provide the online URL in the following manner:
[+]Abbreviations of languages and varieties

  • The ISO 639-3 codes are used as abbreviations for languages, each styled with a capital letter and ended with a full-stop in human-readable text. The ones most often used on Taalportaal are:
    • Afrikaans: Afr.
    • Dutch: Ndl.
    • English: Eng.
    • Frisian: Fry.
  • The ISO 639-5 codes are used as abbreviations for language groups and families, each styled with a capital letter and ended with a full-stop in human-readable text.
The following table contains the most frequently used abbreviations for languages and varieties.

Table 3
Abbreviation Full form
Afr. Afrikaans
EFAfr. Eastern Frontier Afrikaans
Eng. English
Fry. Frisian
GAfr. Gariep Afrikaans (a.k.a. Khoe Afrikaans, or Orange River Afrikaans)
GDAfr. Genadendal Afrikaans
Gem. Germanic languages
Gmw. West Germanic languages
GRAfr. Griqua Afrikaans
Ine. Indo-European languages
K-Afr. Cape Afrikaans (or Cape Vernacular Afrikaans)
NAfr. Nama Afrikaans
NEAfr. North-Eastern Afrikaans
NWAfr. North-Western Afrikaans
Ndl. Dutch
PIE Proto-Indo-European
SAfr. Standard Afrikaans
SNdl. (sometimes StD) Standard Dutch
SWAfr. South-Western Afrikaans
[+]Glossing abbreviations

This list is based on a list available on Wikipedia. Note that glossing abbreviations are usually printed in small caps, even though they are presented below in normal caps.

Also see the list of common Afrikaans words and their glosses.

Table 4
Gloss Meaning Comment
direction of transitivity or possession (2›3 may mean 2 acts on 3; 1sg›sg may mean a 1sg possessor and a singular possessum)
0 zero (null), covert form Such as gender in a language where the word doesn't show it
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person
A adjective/adverb Traditionally A is used for: agent-like argument of canonical transitive verb; here we use AG for this purpose
AB abstract Not in Leipzig rules
ABE abessive case (AKA caritive case or privative case: 'without')
ABL ablative case ('from')
ABR abbreviation Not in Leipzig rules
ABS absolutive case
ACC accusative case
ACCOM accompanier
ACR acronym Not in Leipzig rules
ACT active voice, actor role
ADE adessive case ('at'; more specific than LOC)
ADJ adjective
ADJZ adjectivizer Not in Leipzig rules
ADM admonitive mood (warning)
ADV adverb(ial)
ADVB adverbial case
ADVC adverbial clause Not in Leipzig rules
ADVZ adverbializer Not in Leipzig rules
AFF affirmative mood
AG agent-like argument of canonical transitive verb
AGR agreement
AGT agentive case (cf ACT)
ALIEN alienable possession
ALL allative case ('to')
ALLOC allocutive agreement
AN animate gender (cf R)
AND andative (going towards: cf venitive)
ANT anterior tense (used for PRF in some traditions)
ANTE antessive case ('before')
ANTIC anticausative
ANTIP antipassive voice
AOR aorist (= PFV or PST.PFV)
AP adjective phrase Not in Leipzig rules
APP apposition
APPL applicative voice
APPR apprehensive mood
APRX approximative
ART article
ASP aspect
ASS associative case (= COM), assumptive mood, assertive
AT agent trigger (= AV agent voice)
ATT attenuative
ATTR attributive
AUD auditory evidential
AUG augmentative
AUX auxiliary verb
B core benefactive
BE 'be' verb (a conflation of EXIST and COP)
BEN benefactive case ('for')
C common gender
C complement
CAP (cap)ability, modal case
CAUS causative
CC complement clause Not in Leipzig rules
CENT centric case
CF counterfactual conditional
char character/symbol/number Not in Leipzig rules. Used in lower caps in morphological analyses.
CI clause initial position/field Not in Leipzig rules
CIRC circumfix
CIRCP circumposition Not in Leipzig
CIT citation form
CL Classical
CLF classifier
CMPD compound Not in Leipzig rules
CMPR comparative Not in Leipzig rules
CN category-neutral (category-preserving/word-class-maintaining) Not in Leipzig rules
CNJ conjunction
CNSQ consequential
CNTR contrastive
COL collective plural Also used for collective particle al PTCL.COL
COM comitative case ('together with')
COMP complementizer
COMPL completive aspect
COMPLM complementive Not in Leipzig rules
CON concrete Not in Leipzig rules
CONC concessive
COND conditional mood
CONN connective particle
COORD coordinative
COP copula
COR coreference
CP complementiser phrase
cran cranberry morpheme Not in Leipzig rules. Used in lower caps in morphological analyses.
CRAS crastinal tense ('tomorrow')
CRD cardinal Not in Leipzig rules
CRS current relevance marker (as in the perfect)
CTN continuative aspect
CVB converb
D core dative case
DAT dative case
DE different event, change of event (cf DS)
DEC declarative mood
DEF definite
DEIX deixis, deictic
DEL delayed imperative (a command to do s.t. later)
DEL delative case ('off of'), deliberative mood
DEM demonstrative
DEO deontic mood
DEP dependent (as in DEP.FUT)
DER derivation(al) Not in Leipzig rules
DES desiderative mood
DEST destinative aspect
DET determiner
DETR detransitive
DH motion downhill, seaward (cf DR)
DIM diminutive
DIR direct evidential (= EXP); directional (= LAT); direct case
DISJ disjunction
DIST distal demonstrative
DISTR distributive case
DITR ditransitive
DLM delimited
DM discourse marker
DO direct object
DR motion downriver (cf DH)
DS different-subject (change of subject) marker (cf DE)
DU dual number
DUB dubitative mood
DUR durative aspect, continuous aspect
DYAD dyadic
DYN dynamic aspect
E epenthetic morpheme
-E (used to form various -essive cases)
ELA elative case ('out of')
EMP emphatic
ENDO endocentric Not in Leipzig rules
EPIS epistemic mood, epistemic modality
ERG ergative case
ESS essive case
EVID evidential
EVIT evitative case (= aversive case)
EX exclusive person
EX.DUR excessive duration
EXCLAM exclamative
EXESS exessive case
EXH exhortative
EXIST existential ('there is')
EXO exocentric case
EXP experiential, eyewitness, = direct evidential
EXPL expletive (dummy / meaningless form)
F feminine gender
FACT factive evidential
FAM familiar register (as the T–V distinction)
FIN finite verb
FMR former, deceased
FOC focus
FORM formal register (as the T–V distinction)
FP final particle (joshi)
FREQ frequentative aspect
FUT future tense
G gender (G4 = the 4th gender)
GEN genitive case
GER gerund
GNO gnomic (generic) aspect
GT goal trigger (Austronesian; = GV goal voice)
H head Not in Leipzig rules
HAB habitual aspect
HBL humble register
HEST hesternal tense ('yesterday')
HIST historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense
HOD hodiernal tense ('today')
HON honorific
HORT hortative
HSY hearsay, reported evidential
HUM human, anthropic gender (cf. HBL; R)
HYP hypothetical mood
I inflected
ID identical (~ NID)
IDENTIF identifiable
IDEO ideophone (≈ MIM)
IGNOR ignorative
ILL illative case ('into')
IMM immediate, as in immediate imperative mood, near future tense
IMP imperative mood
IMPERF imperfect (= PST.IPFV)
IMPREC imprecative mood
IMPRS impersonal verb
INAL inalienable possession
INAN inanimate gender
INCH inchoative aspect, inceptive aspect
INCL inclusive person
INCL inclusive person (= IN)
IND indicative mood
INDEP independent Not in Leipzig rules
INDF indefinite (=NDEF)
INE inessive case ('in')
INEL inelative case ('from within')
INF infinitive
INFER inferential evidential
INS instrumental case
INT intensifier
INTEN intentional
INTERJ interjection Not in Leipzig rules
INTR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument) (=NTR)
INTRP intransitive adposition Not in Leipzig rules
INV inverse
IO indirect object
IPFV imperfective aspect (= NPFV)
IRR irrealis mood
IS indirect speech
ITER iterative aspect
JUS jussive mood
-L (used to form various -lative cases)
L2 second language (code-switching)
LAT lative case (= MVMT, direction)
LD locative case + directional
LINK linking (e.g. verb) Not in Leipzig rules
LK linker (= interfix)
LOC locative case (includes essive case)
LOG logophoric
M masculine gender
MAN manner
MC main clause
MF middle field Not in Leipzig rules
MID middle voice
MIM mimetic (≈ IDEO)
MISC miscellaneous
MIR (ad)mirative
MLT multiplicative case
MOD mood, modal, modal case
MOM single action verb (not iterative)
MVT movement
MZ modifier Not in Leipzig rules
N noun
N- non- (e.g. NSG non-singular, NPST non-past, NF non-feminine)
NEG negation, negative
NEOCL neo-classical Not in Leipzig rules
NEUT neuter gender
NH non-human
NMLZ nominalizer/nominalization
NOM nominative case
NP noun phrase Not in Leipzig rules
NS non-subject (Latin 'oblique case')
NUM numeral
O patient-like argument (object) of canonical transitive verb (= P)
OB objective case
OBJ object
OBL oblique case
OBV obviative
OPT optative mood
ORD ordinal Not in Leipzig rules
P patient-like argument of canonical transitive verb (= O)
P. pre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal)
P phrase (also NP, VP, AP, etc.) Not in Leipzig rules
PASS passive voice
PAT patientive (= UND)
PAU paucal number
PEG pegative case (a special case for the giver)
PER perlative case ('per', using)
PERF perfect (= RET)
PERS personal
PFV perfective aspect
PL plural
PLUR pluractional
PM phrase marker, predicate marker
PN pronoun
PO primary object
POL polite register
POSS possessive marker
POST postpositional case
POSTE postessive case ('after')
POSTP postposition
POT potential mood (a possible conditional)
PP prepositional phrase / adpositional phrase On Wikipedia PP = past/passive participle. We rather use PST.PTCP and PASS.PTCP respectively
PPFV past perfective
PPP past passive participle We rather use PST.PASS.PTCP
PR proper noun
PREC precative mood (requests)
PRED predicative
PREF prefix Not in Leipzig rules
PREP preposition
PRESP present participle We rather use PRS.PTCP
PRF perfect (= RET)
PROB probability
PROG progressive aspect
PROH prohibitive mood ('don't!')
PROL prolative case (= VIA)
PROP propositive mood
PROS prosecutive case ('across', 'along')
PROSP prospective aspect
PROT protasis
PROX proximal/proximate
PRP prepositional case
PRS present tense
PRT preterite (= PFV.PST)
PST past tense
PT patient trigger
PTCL particle
PTCP participle
PTV partitive case ('some of') PTV.GEN for partitive genitive
PURP purposive
PV post-verbal position/field Not in Leipzig rules
Q question word or particle (= INT); interrogative
QUOT quotative case or mood (marks quoted speech)
R rational gender (thinking beings)
R pronoun containing the letter r Not in Leipzig rules. In Taalportaal R is used especially in the context of R-pronoun. Also see REF, REL, RFR.
REAL realis mood
REC recent past tense
RECP reciprocal voice
REDUP reduplication Not in Leipzig rules
REF referential Also see RFR
REFL reflexive voice
REL relative(izer)
RELC relative clause Not in Leipzig rules
REM remote past tense
REP reported evidential (= HSY)
REPT repetitive (cf ITER)
RES resultative
RESM resumptive
RET retrospective (synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions)
RFR referential Also see REF
RLC relic
S single argument of canonical intransitive verb (cf CIT)
SBJV subjunctive mood
SE same event (cf SS)
SEM semelfactive aspect ('once')
SENS sensory evidential mood (= VIS+AUD)
SEQ sequential
SG singular (but 1.SG = 1s, 3MASC.SG = 3ms)
SGV singulative number
SIM simultaneous aspect
SIMT similative
SPCL speculative mood
SPEC specifier
SPL supplicative
SS same-subject marker (cf SE)
STAT stative aspect
STV stative verb
SUB subject
SUBE subessive case ('under')
SUBL sublative case ('onto', 'down onto')
SUBORD subordinator
SUC successive ('then')
SUF suffix Not in Leipzig rules
SUP supine
SUPE superessive case ('on')
SUPL superlative
-T trigger (used for AT, PT)
TAM tense, aspect, or mood
TEL telic aspect (cf PFV)
TEMP temporal case
TERM terminative case
TNS tense
TOP topic
TR transitive verb
TRANS transitive case (rare)
TRANSL translative case (becoming)
TRI trial number
TRN trans-numeral (neither SG nor PL)
TVF truth-value focus
U uninflected
UH motion uphill, inland (cf UR)
UND undergoer role (cf PAT)
UR motion upriver (cf UH)
USIT usitative
V verb(al)
V2 verb-second Not in Leipzig rules
VBZ verbalizer
VD verb, ditransitive
VEN venitive (coming towards; cf andative)
VER veridical, veridical mood (a certain conditional)
VF verb-final Not in Leipzig rules
VI verb, intransitive
VIA vialis case
VIS visible, visual
VN verbal noun
VOC vocative case
VOL volitive mood
VP verb phrase Not in Leipzig rules
VT verb, transitive
WG word group Not in Leipzig rules
WH.Q wh-question
-Z -(al)izer (e.g. TRZ transitivizer)
ZO zoic gender (animals)
[+]Change log

If you have any question or suggestions about these abbreviations, please contact Gerhard van Huyssteen.

[hide extra information]

  • 2020/04/28: Added CIRCP for "circumposition" and INTRP vor "intransitive adposition".
  • 2020/03/30: Finalised list of common gloss combinations
  • 2020/03/28: Changed glosses of sal and wil
  • 2020/03/25: Added kan/kon explicitly as examples; Added glossing for moenie; u; be.AUX.PASS.PRT.
  • 2020/03/07: Added all verbs with preterite forms, plus different glosses for het and had, plus examples of R-pronouns, plus examples of passive form of the verb
  • 2020/03/05: Added that.REL; added RELC
  • 2020/02/29: Added was and dog (plus a few others) as preterite forms of the verb; added LINK as abbreviation for linking verbs
  • 2020/02/15: Added abbreviations: WG, char, cran
  • 2020/02/03: Added R as accepted abbreviation in the context of R-pronoun
  • 2020/01/04: Combined different tables with abbreviations in one topic
  • 2019/09/21: Bullet added regarding references to rules in AWS
  • 2018/07/12: Changes made to manner of referencing using the WAT style, for the sake of international standards
  • 2018/07/01: Bullet added on manner of referencing using the WAT style
  • 2018/07/01: Bullet added regarding VivA-KPO
  • 2018/07/01: Abbreviations changed, and information added for handling glossing in "ilexample" and running text

  • Du Plessis, M. (ed.)2005Pharos Afrikaans-Engels/Engels-Afrikaanse WoordeboekPharos
  • Cloete, A.E. & Van Wyk, G.J., teg. red2003Etimologiewoordeboek van Afrikaans.Buro van die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal
  • Instituut voor de Nederlandse Taal2001-Algemeen Nederlands WoordenboekLeiden
  • Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns. Taalkommissie. & Bosman, D.B., samest1921Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls.Nasionale Pers
This is a beta version.