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Certain adjectives and adverbs of distance and location may be used to modify Adposition Phrases (PPs) of location.


Adjectives which can refer to the locational notion of distance, such as ticht close and heech high may modify locational adpositional phrases, as shown in the examples below:

a. Frij ticht by de stins
rather close to the manor.house
Rather close to the manor house
b. Deun by de tsjerke
close by the church
Close to the church
c. Tige heech yn 'e loft
very high in the sky
Very high in the sky
d. Tichter by de tsjerke as by de stins
closer to the church as to the manor.house
Closer to the church than to the manor house

It is not clear whether the adjective modifies the PP or whether the PP modifies the adjective. In example (d) above, the PP is the comparative argument of the adjective, which should be impossible if the adjective is just a modifier. It is a significant fact that both the adjective and the PP refer to location. There are also idiomatic collocations of this type:

Fier fan 'e bewenne wrâld
far from the inhabited world
Far from the inhabited world

The example above is a loan from Dutch. Instead of the adjective fier far, the Noun Phrase (NP) in ein (quite) a distance would normally be used:

a. In ein fan 'e bewenne wrâld
a distance from the inhabited world
Far from the inhabited world
b. Hoe'n ein fan 'e bewenne wrâld?
how a distance from the inhabited world
How far from the inhabited world?

Locational adjectives are also found with intransitive locative adpositions. In such cases, the combination of adjective and adposition is written as one word, such as tichtby close by:

Tichtby / tichter by / it tichtst by
close.by / closer by / the closest by
Close by / closer by / the closest by

Other modifiers of locational PPs are given below. It cannot in all cases be determined whether they are adjectival or not:

a. Lyk op 'e holle
straight on the head
Straight on the head
b. Rjocht foar it hûs
straight in.front.of the house
In front of the house
c. Krekt njonken it doel
just beside the goal
Just beside the goal

Other types of modifiers, which are regularly found before adjectives may also be found before PP:

a. De bal gie hiel bot njonken (it doel)
the ball went very much alongside (the goal)
The ball missed the goal by a mile
b. Hy gie der hielendal yn
it went there completely in
It went completely inside
c. Hy sit heal yn it gat
it sits half in the hole
It is halfway in the hole
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