• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Afrikaans
Show all Exocentric compounds

Exocentric compoundings are compounds which do not contain a head.

The class of exocentric compounds is rather heterogeneous.

Possessive compounds (also called bahuvrihi compounds) form a productive subset. These are words like redhead, which do not denote a special class of heads, but rather a red haired person. In Saterland Frisian, possessive compounds are often (but not always) used in a pejorative way.

die Grootbäk (‘someone with a big mouth’), die Tjukiers (someone with a big bottom), Dumsnute (simpleton, lit. ‘dumb-face’), die Twäintit (‘a cow that gives milk only through two teats’)

Possessive compounds like Grootbäk (‘a bigmouth’) are sometimes hard to distinguish from endocentric pejorative designations with non-literal heads, ending in body parts (-snute, -bäk etc.), pieces of clothing or accessories (-häkke, -taaske etc.) or proper names (-jaan, -lieze etc.).

die Kwielbäk (slobberer), die Haueliers (slow eater), die Doamelpüüt, ju Doameltaaske (chattering fool), ju Lachlieze (‘giggling girl’, lit. ‘laugh-Lisa’)

In these words, elements like -bäk, -iers (etc.) can be classified as affixoids (see [] on affixoids).

Another type of exocentric compounds is represented by complex verbs which feature a word-initial verbal element, just like Dutch likkebaarden (‘to lick one’s lips’).

glapoogje (to glance secretely’), blaubäkje (‘to stand in the cold’, lit. ‘to blue-mouth’), nikkopje (‘to nod’, lit. ‘to nod-head’)

Verbs like those are always Class II weak verbs (that is: verbs ending in -je).

    printreport errorcite