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Complementive predicative
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Past participles which have been morphologically converted to adjectives may occur in predicative position. They can be distinguished by various tests from past participles which have not been morphologically converted to adjectives.

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Like attributive past participles, predicative past participles are ambiguous between a process reading and a permanent state reading. The process reading is brought out by the use of a troch-phrase (by-phrase) and by the use of the adverbial yn twa jierwithin two years. The permanent state reading is brought out by the use of the adverbial al jierrenfor years and by morphological negation. Hence, the troch-phrase (by-phrase) cannot be combined with the adverbial al jierrenfor years:

Example 1

a. De terp is troch de eigner yn twa jier beboud
the mound is by the owner in two years built.upon
The mound which is being built on for two years by the owner
b. De terp is al jierren beboud
the mound is for years built.upon
The mound on which buildings have stood for years
c. *De terp is troch de eigner al jierren beboud
the mound is by the owner for years built.upon
Lit: The mound is built on by the owner for years
d. De terp is al jierren ûnbeboud
the mound is for years not.built.upon
The mound has been undeveloped for years
e. *De terp is yn twa jier ûnbeboud
the mound is within two years not.built.upon
Lit: The mound is not built on within two years
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