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Realisation of complements external to NP

Noun Phrases (NPs) have an external argument position that is comparable to the subject position of clauses. NPs bearing various thematic roles can also be realised in that position, which is sometimes referred to as the possessor position. An example is given below:

Cleopatra har noas
Cleopatra her nose
Cleopatra's nose

Agents, themes and possessors can not only be realised internally to NP, but they can also be externally realised, that is, outside the NP. In this case, they appear in the functional domain, which may be referred to as the domain of the Determiner Phrase (DP). In case agents, themes or possessors are externally realised, they do not have the form of Adposition Phrases (PPs) but of NPs. Such NPs are doubled in Frisian by genitival pronouns. Hence such NPs may be referred to as genitival NPs. Only proper nouns may themselves bear genitive case in the form of the suffix -s.

The example below shows that agents can be realised externally in the genitive position:

Laurens Alma Tadema syn skilderij 'It Tepidarium'
Laurens Alma Tadema his painting The Tepidarium
Laurens Alma Tadema's painting 'The Tepidarium'

The examples below show that themes can be realised externally:

a. Carthago's ferneatiging
Carthage's destruction
Carthage's destruction
b. Cleopatra har dea
Cleopatra her death
Cleopatra's death

However, in case the agent is overtly expressed in a fan of PP, the theme cannot be expressed externally as a genitive:

*Carthago's ferneatiging fan Scipio
Carthage's destruction of Scipio
Carthage's destruction by Scipio

In contrast, the overt expression of the theme as a PP does not block the realisation of the agent as a prenominal genitive:

Scipio's ferneatiging fan Carthago
Scipio's destruction of Carthage
Scipio's destruction of Carthage

Furthermore, the theme may be expressed as an external genitive in case the agent is expressed in a troch by PP, as shown in the example below:

Carthago's ferneatiging troch Scipio
Carthage's destruction by Scipio
Carthage's destruction by Scipio

The example below shows that possessors can be realised externally:

Cleopatra har noas
Cleopatra her nose
Cleopatra's nose

Externally realised genitive NPs must precede the noun, as shown by the examples above. If the externally realised NP follows the noun, then the resulting phrase is ungrammatical:

a. *Ferneatiging Carthago's
destruction Carthage's
b. *Noas Cleopatra har
nose Cleopatra her
c. *Noas har Cleopatra
nose her Cleopatra
d. *Har noas Cleopatra
her nose Cleopatra

Themes or other elements which are bound to specific prepositions cannot occur externally. The example below shows that a theme bound to the preposition op for, on cannot occur externally:

a. De hope op Domela
the hope for Domela
The hope for Domela
b. *Domela's hope
Domela's hope
Domela's hope

The examples below show that a place adverbial cannot occur externally:

a. De pleats yn Lúnbert
the farmhouse in Lúnbert
The farmhouse in Lúnbert
b. *Lúnbert syn pleats
Lúnbert his farmhouse
Lúnbert's farmhouse
c. *Lúnberts pleats
Lúnbert.GEN farmhouse
Lúnbert's farmhouse

The example below shows that a time adverbial cannot occur in the genitive position:

a. De krante fan moandei
the newspaper of Monday
The newspaper of Monday
b. *Moandei's krante
Monday's newspaper
Monday's newspaper
c. *Mondei syn krante
Monday his newspaper
Monday's newspaper

Nouns can be elided following a possessor.

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