• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Afrikaans
Show all

The suffix -erwize creates adverbs from adverbially used adjectives (including present participles). An example is tafallich by chance > tafalligerwize by chance. The suffix is unproductive, and many formations seem to be loans from Dutch. The bases are complex.

[+]General properties

The suffix -erwize creates adverbs from other adverbs, i.e. adverbially used adjectives and present participles. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
normaal normal/normally normalerwize normally
foarsichtich careful foarsichtigerwize carefully
oanfallend offensive oanfallenderwize offensively
boartsjend playing boartsjenderwize without effort
earlik honest/honestly earlikerwize honestly
begryplik understandable/understandably begryplikerwize in an understandable way
fatsoenlik decent/decently fatsoenlikerwize decently
minsklik human/humanly minsklikerwize humanly
dúdlik clear/clearly dúdlikerwize clearly
reedlik rational/rationally reedlikerwize rationally
foarsichtich careful/carefully foarsichtigerwize carefully
freegjend interrogative/interrogatively freegjenderwize inquiringly
roljend rolling/rollingly roljenderwize in a rolling way
The base forms are complex, that is, they contain a suffix. Usually, this is the ending of the present participle -end or the suffixes -ich or -lik. This may be an important difference with the suffix -wei, which can also be attached to monosyllabic words.

The suffix -erwize carries the meaning ‘in a manner indicated by the base form’. This reflects its etymological relationship with the noun wize manner. The main semantic roles of the adverbs are those of qualification, modality, and evaluation. The usual way to express a manner in Frisian is by using the suffix -wei. Often, a derivation with -erwize has a Dutch flavour. A subtle semantic difference might furthermore be that -wei also involves a time aspect: it implies that the manner has persisted during the whole of the action. This aspect seems to be lacking with respect to -erwize.

[+]Phonological properties

The suffix preserves the main stress location of its base word (EARlik honest/honestly > EARlikerwize honestly); the second syllable of the suffix [vi:] carries secondary stress. The prosodic structure of the adverbs is such that each consists of two prosodic words. The first one is formed by the base + the part -er-, whereas -wiis/-wize forms the second prosodic word, as in /(moγləkər)(υizə)/.

When the base form ends in a voiceless consonant, this becomes voiced before -erwize: lokkich [lokəx] lucky > lokkigerwize [lokəɣərvi:zə] luckily, boartsjend [bṷatsjənt] playing > boartsjenderwize [bṷatsjəndərvi:zə] effortlessly.

[+]Morphological potential

Adverbs in -erwize cannot be input for further derivation.


Some more details about the suffixe -erwize can be found in Boersma (2007).

  • Boersma, Gertrud D2007Bywurden mei de efterheaksels -wei en -wiis/wize yn it Frysk en -weg en -wijs/-wijze yn it NederlânskRijksuniversiteit GroningenThesis
printreport errorcite