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2.6.1 Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are marked for person, number and case. The nominative forms are

Table 1
iek ‘I’
du de ‘you’
hie -er ‘he’
ju -ze ‘she’
dät ‘t ‘that’
wie -we ‘we’
jie ‘you (pl.)’, ‘you (rev.)’
jo -ze ‘they’

The third person personal pronouns hie and ju may refer to either male and female persons respectively or masculine and feminine nouns respectively. The neuter form dät is not often used for persons, nowadays. Ju is preferred as anaphoric personal pronoun referring to nouns such as dät Wucht ‘the girl’ or dät Wieuwmoanske ‘the woman’.

The forms -er, -ze (f.sg), -we and -ze (pl.) are clitics. They occur after verbs and conjunctions. Frequent verbs like häbe ‘to have’ or konnen ‘to be able’ often show sandhi phenomena before -we.

Do is er waigeen. ’Then he went away.’ Dan kou-we spielje. ‘Then we can play.’

The other weak nominative forms can also be used sentence-initially.

‘k Weet nit. ‘I don’t know.’ ’t Rient. ‘It rains.’

The status of the reduced 2.sg form de is probably a clitic. The pronoun can also be left out altogether after a verb.

Wieruum toankste? ‘What are you thinking about?’ Moake dat de wäch kumst.’Get lost.’ Dan kuust gauer säddenje. ‘Then you could churn faster.’

Personal pronouns can sometimes be left out sentence-initially by way of topic drop.

Bän al hier. ‘I ‘m here already.’ Koast uus Babe fräigje. ’You can ask my father.’

The second person singular can also be used in a generic sense. Generally, the pronoun du will be left out. Alternatively, the pronoun man can be used (weak form: me; oblique form: aan, possessive form sin/sien). Man is not restricted to generic (non-episodic) contexts.

Dät and t can be used as impersonal pronouns.

Man rakt hier do wülde Dierte pries. ‘They sacrifice her to the wild beasts.’ Me weet silläärge nit, wo hie dät meent. ‘One never knows how he means that.’ Dan blift aan niks uurs uur. ‘Then one is left with no other alternative.’
Dät rient. ‘It rains.’ ’t Rient. (id.)

The oblique forms are:

Table 2
mie ‘me’
die ‘you’
him -ene ‘him’
hier ju, -ze ‘her’
dät -‘t ‘that’
uus ‘us’
jou ‘you (pl.)’, ‘you (rev.)’
him -ze ‘them’

The weak forms are only used as direct objects:

Iek häbe ze funden. ‘I have found them.’ Hie traalde-ne stuuf ou. ‘He bent it completely.’

The strong form him (pl.) only refers to animate objects.

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