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3.3.2.4.3.Disjunctive coordination ( of'or')
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Subsection I will show that constructions in which two NPs coordinated by the disjunctive conjunction of'or' are followed by a relative clause, are often ambiguous between a coordinated antecedent reading, in which the relative clause restricts both conjuncts, and a non-coordinated antecedent reading, in which the relative clause restricts only the second conjunct. Subsection II will show that constructions with a coordinated antecedent reading may be ambiguous in their turn as well, allowing both a one-set and a two-set reading. This gives rise to a three-way ambiguity. Subsection III will discuss disjunctively coordinated antecedents in generic contexts, and Subsection IV will discuss relative constructions in which the conjuncts of the antecedent differ in nominal features. We will complete the discussion in V by drawing a number of general conclusions.

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[+]  I.  Coordinated versus non-coordinated antecedents

Constructions with NPs coordinated by the conjunction of'or' that are followed by a relative clause often allow both a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. The examples in this subsection may receive a analysis similar to the corresponding examples with the conjunction en'and' from Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub I; cf. the discussion of (381) and (387). We should keep in mind, however, that matters are somewhat complicated by the fact that examples with a coordinated antecedent reading sometimes allow two different interpretations, the so-called one-set and two-set readings, which will be discussed in the next subsection.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

If noun phrases are coordinated by means of the disjunctive conjunction of'or' and followed by a restrictive relative clause, ambiguity may arise between a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. Whether ambiguity does indeed arise depends on the nature of the conjuncts: if the conjuncts share the same article, only the coordinated antecedent reading is available; if more articles are present, ambiguity may arise for some people. Of course, indefinite plurals are somewhat special given that they have articles that are phonetically empty.

[+]  1.  Coordinated indefinite plurals

The examples in (458) show that ambiguity may arise with coordinated indefinite plurals. The scope of the relative clause is indicated by bracketing: in the primeless examples the relative clause restricts both conjuncts, and in the primed ones only the second conjunct. Example (458a), for instance, expresses that any person who is a boy or a girl and who is late will be punished, whereas (458a') expresses that any person who is a boy will be punished, or any person who is a girl and who is late. Similarly, (458b) expresses that we may keep dogs or cats provided that they do not cause much trouble, whereas (458b') expresses that we may keep either cats, or dogs that do not cause much trouble.

458
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. Jongens of [meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
b. We mogen [katten of honden die niet veel overlast geven] houden.
  we  may   cats or dogs  which  not  much trouble  give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep cats or dogs that do not give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen katten of [honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

In speaking, the two readings will be disambiguated by means of intonation. On the coordinated antecedent reading in the primeless examples, the coordinated antecedent is pronounced as a single intonation unit. On the non-coordinated antecedent reading, on the other hand, the conjunction of'or' is preceded by an intonation break and extra emphasis is given to the second head noun ( meisjes'girls' and honden'dogs'), while the entire second conjunct, including the relative clause, will be pronounced as a single intonation unit.

[+]  2.  Coordinated definite plurals

If the plural conjuncts are definite, as in (459), speakers may have difficulty in obtaining the coordinated antecedent reading in the primeless examples. In this respect the examples with the disjunctive conjunction behave just like the corresponding examples with the conjunction en'and' discussed in 3.3.2.4.2, sub I, example (380).

459
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? [De jongens of de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys or the girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. De jongens of [de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
b. ? We mogen [de katten of de honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the cats or the dogs  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cats or the dogs which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de katten of [de honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

Just as in the case of coordination with en'and', the fact that the primeless examples in (459) are marked may be related to the fact that these examples compete with the examples in (460a&b), in which the two conjuncts share the same article. Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub I has shown that examples with a single article may be preferred given that they can be analyzed without postulating any elided material. Coordinated plurals with a single definite article do not allow the exclusive reading; the account given in Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub III, for the corresponding examples with en'and' can also be applied to these examples.

460
Coordinated plurals with one definite article
a. [De jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys or girls  who too late come  are  punished
a'. *? De jongens of [meisjes die te laat kwamen], werden gisteren gestraft.
b. We mogen [de honden of katten die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the dogs or cats  which not much trouble give  keep
b'. *? We mogen de honden of [katten die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
[+]  3.  Coordinated indefinite singulars

The examples in (461) show that in the case of coordinated indefinite singulars the non-coordinated antecedent reading is available, provided at least that the two conjuncts have the same gender; see Subsection IVA for cases in which the gender is different. The non-coordinated antecedent readings are harder to obtain. Note that these examples only allow a generic interpretation.

461
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. [Een scholier of een student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  a pupil or a student  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'A pupil or a student who has registered gets a reduction.'
a'. ?? Een scholier of [een student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. [Een leraar of een leerling die te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  a teacher or a student  who too late comes  is  punished
  'A teacher or a student who is late will be punished.'
b'. ?? Een leraar of [een leerling die te laat komt] wordt gestraft.

The two conjuncts may also share the indefinite article. Example (462a) shows that the coordinated antecedent reading is fully acceptable, and, in fact, it may be the case that this generic example is even more natural than the generic examples in (461a&b). Example (462b) shows that the coordinated noun phrase can also be given a specific interpretation. In this use, the coordinated noun phrase refers to a single person; the speaker refers to a specific person but does not know whether that person is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts, which accounts for the unacceptability of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in the primed example. If we assume that the generic example in (462a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (462a').

462
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article
a. [Een student of scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt altijd korting.
  a student or pupil  who refl has registered  gets  always  discount
  'A student or pupil who has registered always gets a reduction.'
a'. * Een student of [scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt altijd korting.
b. [Een student of scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg daar korting.
  a student or pupil  who refl had registered  got  there  discount
  'A student or pupil who has registered got a reduction there.'
b'. * Een student of [scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg daar korting.
[+]  4.  Coordinated definite singulars

As in the case of coordinated definite plural, the coordinated antecedent reading is not accepted by all speakers. The non-coordinated antecedent reading, on the other hand, is fully acceptable.

463
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. ? [De scholier of de student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'The pupil or the student who has registered gets a reduction.'
a'. De scholier of [de student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. ? [De leraar of de leerling die te laat komt] wordt gestraft.
  the teacher or the student  who too late comes  is  punished
  'The teacher or the student who is late will be punished.'
b'. De leraar of [de leerling die te laat is] wordt gestraft.

Example (464a) shows that generic examples like (463a&b) improve if the two conjuncts share the same article. The non-coordinated antecedent reading in (464a'&b'), on the other hand, is completely excluded. The coordinated noun phrase in (464b) refers to a single individual, of whom the speaker does not know whether he is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts, which accounts for the unacceptability of (463b'). If we assume that the generic example in (464a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (464a').

464
Coordinated singular with one definite article
a. [De student of scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  the student or pupil  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'The student or pupil who has registered will get a reduction.'
a'. * De student of [scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. [De student of scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg korting.
  the student or pupil  who refl had registered  got  discount
b'. * De student of [scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg korting.
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

If two elements are coordinated by means of of'or' and followed by a non-restrictive relative clause, ambiguity may arise between a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. As in the case of restrictive relative clauses, the question as to whether ambiguity does indeed arise depends on the nature of the two conjuncts: if the conjuncts share the same article, only the coordinated antecedent reading is available; if more articles are present, ambiguity arises. Indefinite plurals are somewhat special given that they have articles that are phonetically empty.

[+]  1.  Coordinated indefinite plurals

With coordinated indefinite plurals both readings seem available, although the coordinated antecedent reading seems to be preferred. Note that the primeless examples involving inclusive of'or' are semantically more or less equivalent to the corresponding construction with the conjunction en'and', which may be preferred by some speakers.

465
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  students or pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'Students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
a'. ? Studenten of [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
b. We mogen [honden of katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   dogs or cats  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep dogs or cats, which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. ? We mogen honden of [katten, die niet veel overlast geven] houden.
[+]  2.  Coordinated definite plurals

With coordinated plurals with two definite articles, the two readings seem to be equally acceptable. Again, some speakers may find the primeless examples somewhat marked compared to the corresponding constructions with en'and'.

466
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. [De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or the pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
a'. De studenten of [de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
b. We mogen [de honden of de katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the dogs or the cats  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cats or the dogs, which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de honden of [de katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

If the two conjuncts share the same definite article, the result is always marginal at best. The non-coordinated antecedent reading is completely excluded when the sentence is unambiguously non-generic, as in (467b').

467
Coordinated plurals with one article
a. ? [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
a'. * De studenten of [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students  or   pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. ? [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hadden], kregen korting.
  the students or pupils  who little money had  got  discount
  'The students or pupils, who didnʼt have much money, got a reduction.'
b'. * De studenten of [scholieren, die niet weinig hadden], kregen korting.
  the students  or   pupils  who little money had  got  discount
[+]  3.  Coordinated indefinite singulars

The examples in (468) show that in the case of coordinated indefinite singulars the non-coordinated antecedent reading is available, provided at least that the two conjuncts have the same gender; see Subsection IVA for cases in which the gender is different. The non-coordinated antecedent readings seem somewhat harder to obtain.

468
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. [Een student of een scholier, die weinig geld heeft/hebben], krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who little money  has/have  gets discount
  'A student or a pupil, who has/have little money, gets a reduction.'
a'. ? Een student of [een scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
b. We mogen [een hond of een kat, die niet veel overlast geeft/geven], houden.
  we may   a dog or a cat  which not much trouble gives/give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep a dog or a cat, which doesnʼt give much trouble.'
b'. ? We mogen een hond of [een kat, die niet veel overlast geeft], houden.

With indefinite singular antecedents, the two conjuncts may also share the indefinite article. The coordinated antecedent reading is fully acceptable, and, in fact, it may be the case that the generic example in (469a) is even more natural than the generic example in (468a). Note in passing that, although judgments are again delicate, it seems that use of the plural form of the finite verb in the relative clause is not possible in (469a). The preferred interpretation of (469a) is generic, but (469b) shows that the coordinated noun phrase can also be given a specific interpretation, in which case it refers to a single person; the speaker refers to a specific person but does not know whether that person is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts. If we assume that the generic example in (469a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (469a').

469
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article
a. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money has  gets  always  discount
  'A student or pupil, who has little money, always gets a reduction.'
a'. * Een student of [scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
b. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money had  got  yesterday  discount
  'A student or pupil, who had little money, got a reduction yesterday.'
b'. * Een student of [scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
[+]  4.  Coordinated definite singulars

The non-generic examples in (470) are all acceptable. The coordinated constructions with a single definite article in (471), on the other hand, are more restricted: they are perhaps marginally possible in a generic context like (471a); if the coordinated noun phrase has a specific reading, as in (471b), the result is bad. The non-coordinated antecedent reading in the primed examples is also ungrammatical.

470
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. [De student of de scholier, die (allebei) weinig geld hebben], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who both little money have  gets  discount
  'The student or the pupil, who (both) have little money, gets a reduction.'
a'. De student of [de scholier, die niet zo veel geld heeft], krijgt korting.
b. We mogen [de hond of de kat, die (beide) niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we may   the dog or the cat  which both not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the dog or the cat, which (both) donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de hond of [de kat, die niet veel overlast geeft], houden.
471
Coordinated singular with one definite article
a. ?? [De student of scholier, die niet zo veel geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
  the student or pupil  who not so much money has  gets  always  discount
  'The student or pupil, who didnʼt have much money, always gets a reduction.'
a'. * De student of [scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
b. * [De student of schoier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
  the student or pupil  who little money had  got  yesterday  discount
b'. * De student of [scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
[+]  II.  One-set versus two-set reading (inclusive versus exclusive of'or')

Examples with a coordinated antecedent reading are often ambiguous due to the fact that the disjunctive conjunction of'or' allows two readings. These two readings, the inclusive, one-set reading and the exclusive, two-set reading, can be described as in (472). We will see in the two subsections below that the ambiguity arises with both restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses.

472
a. Inclusive of (one-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves a single set, the members of which are either N1 or N2; the relative clause modifies this single set and the predicate in the main clause holds for this single set.Inclusive of (one-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves a single set, the members of which are either N1 or N2; the relative clause modifies this single set and the predicate in the main clause holds for this single set.
b. Exclusive óf (two-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves two separate sets, one set whose members are N1 and one set whose members are N2: the relative clause is interpreted in such a way that it modifies each set separately, and the predicate in the main holds for only one of these sets.Exclusive óf (two-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves two separate sets, one set whose members are N1 and one set whose members are N2: the relative clause is interpreted in such a way that it modifies each set separately, and the predicate in the main holds for only one of these sets.

The two types of of differ in that exclusive óf is often stressed, which is indicated by an accent, which is normally not found in written language, and can be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...'; inclusive of, on the other hand, is normally not stressed, accent falling on the new information in the relative clause, and cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

The availability of the inclusive (one-set), and the exclusive (two-set) reading depends on the nature of the coordinated antecedent of the relative clause. First, consider example (473a), in which the antecedent is a definite coordinated noun phrase with a single article. This example only yields the inclusive reading due to the fact that we are dealing with a single DP, and hence there is only a single referent set. That exclusive óf cannot be used DP-internally is also clear from the fact illustrated in (473b) that use of the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...' leads to ungrammaticality.

473
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
b. * De [NP [óf jongens óf meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.

      Now compare example (473a) to example (474a), in which each conjunct is associated with its own article. The preferred reading for this (marked) construction is the exclusive reading, which is consistent with the fact illustrated by (474b) that the disjunctive conjunction can be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or', which unambiguously shows that exclusive óf can be used to coordinate DPs. If these examples are indeed grammatical, they are plausibly derived by means of backward conjunction reduction. Recall from Subsection I that it is actually the non-coordinated antecedent reading which is best.

474
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. % [De jongens die te laat komen] óf [de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys  or   the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b. % Óf de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  either the boys or the girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'Either the boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'

For the coordinated definite singulars in (475a) the exclusive reading is also clearly preferred to the inclusive reading, although, again, it is the non-coordinated antecedent reading that is actually best. Note that, for convenience, we will no longer indicate the elided relative clause in the first conjunct.

475
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. % De student óf de scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  the pupil or the student  who refl has registered  gets  the free ticket
b. % Óf de student óf de scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either the pupil or the student  who refl has registered  gets  the free ticket
  'Either the pupil or the student who registered will get the free ticket.'

      Although, for reasons to be discussed in Subsection III, the inclusive reading is highly preferred in the case of coordinated indefinites as in (476), the exclusive reading seems to be marginally possible as well. On the first reading, the sentence expresses that there is a single antecedent set, whose members are either boys or girls, and it is predicated of the members of this set who are late that they will be punished. On the second reading, there are two sets of person that are late consisting of, respectively, boys and girls, and the sentence expresses that only the members of one of these sets will be punished. The ambiguity arises due to the fact that the word order is compatible both with assuming that of coordinates some noun phrase internal projection and with assuming that it coordinates DPs.

476
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft, maar niet hun ouders.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are punished  but not their parents
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished, but their parents wonʼt.'
b. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'

Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles seem to behave in ways essentially similar to their plural counterparts, the only difference being that the sets in question consist of only one member: example (477a) illustrates the inclusive reading, and (477b) illustrates the exclusive reading. The two coordinated definite singulars in (477a) form a one-member set interpretation with a generic reading: any pupil or student who has registered will be given a complimentary ticket. In (477b), on the other hand, two one-member sets are coordinated, with the relative clause restricting both elements separately. The predication in the main clause, however, holds for only one of these sets: “either a pupil who has enrolled will receive the free ticket, or a student who has enrolled”.

477
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. Een scholier of een student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt een vrijkaart.
  a pupil or a student  who refl has registered  gets  a free.ticket
  'A pupil or a student who has registered will get a complimentary ticket.'
b. (Óf) een scholier óf een student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either a pupil  or  a student  who refl has registered  gets the free.ticket
  'Either a pupil or a student who has registered will get the free ticket.'

Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article allow only the inclusive reading, which is clear from the fact that the disjunctive conjunction cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or'. In this respect they behave like the coordinated plurals with a single definite article in (473). Note that some speakers may prefer the generic example in (478a) to the one in (477a).

478
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article (same gender)
a. Een scholier of student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt een vrijkaart.
  a pupil or student  who refl has registered  gets  a free.ticket
  'A pupil or a student who has registered will get the complimentary ticket.'
b. * (Óf) een scholier óf student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either a pupil  or a student  who refl has registered  gets the free.ticket
  'Either a pupil or a student who has registered will get the complimentary ticket.'

      The discussion above suggests that the exclusive (two-set) and the inclusive (one-set) reading may involve coordination at different levels. The exclusive reading arises from the structure in (479a), which involves coordination at the level of DP and some form of backward conjunction reduction, whereas the inclusive reading involves coordination of projections within the noun phrase (NP or NumP); see Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub II, for a discussion of these analyses.

479
a. [DP D [NP [... N ...]i [RC1RELi ... ti ... ]]] of [DP D [NP [... N...]j [RC2 RELj ... tj ... ]]]
b. [DP D [NP [[ ... N ...] of [ ...N ...]]i [RC RELi ... ti ... ]]]
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

Ambiguity between the inclusive (one-set) and the exclusive (two-set) reading may also arise in non-restrictive relative clause constructions. As in the case of the restrictive relative clauses the availability of the two readings depends on the nature of the coordinated antecedent of the relative clause. If we are dealing with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, only the inclusive reading is available. As in the case of restrictive relative clauses, this is not surprising given that we are dealing with a single DP and hence there is only a single referent set. This is compatible with our earlier conclusion that exclusive óf cannot be used DP-internally given that use of the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...' leads to ungrammaticality. Note that some speakers may find example (480a) with inclusive of'or' marked compared to the corresponding construction with en'and', which is semantically more or less equivalent to it.

480
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  have  get  discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. * De óf studenten óf scholieren, die niet zo veel geld hebben, krijgen korting.

      Example (480a) contrasts sharply with (466a), repeated here as (481a), in which each conjunct is associated with its own article. The preferred reading of this example is the exclusive reading, which is shown by fact that the conjunction of can be readily replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... ó f'either ... or', as illustrated by (481b). We are dealing with two DPs, each referring to its own referent set, and the sentence expresses that a discount is given to the members of only one of the two sets, that is, either to the students or to the pupils. The constructions with two definite singular elements in (482) also seem to favor the exclusive reading.

481
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? [De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who  little money  have  get discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de studenten óf [de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  or the students  or the pupils who little money have  get discount
  'Either the students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
482
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles
a. ?? [De student of de scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who little money has  gets discount
  'The student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de scholier óf [de student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either the student  or  the pupil  who little money has  gets discount
  'Either the student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'

      In the case of the coordinated indefinite plurals in (483), the inclusive reading is preferred to the exclusive reading, which is marginally possible at best. Example (483a) expresses that we are with a single set of students and pupils, who all receive a discount: on this reading it is possible to express contrast between the single coordinated antecedent set and some other set. Again, some speakers may find example (483a) with inclusive of'or' marked compared to the corresponding construction with en'and', which is semantically more or less equivalent to it.

483
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting (maar docenten niet).
  students or pupils  who  little money  have  get discount (but  teachers  not)
  'Students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction (but teachers donʼt).'
b. ?? (Óf) studenten óf [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  Either students  or   pupils  who little money have  get discount

      Coordinated singulars with one article allow only the inclusive reading: it is claimed that anyone who is a student or a pupil will get a discount. That the exclusive reading is not possible is also clear from the fact that the disjunctive conjunction cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or'. The examples in (484) therefore behave just like the coordinated plurals with a single definite article in (480).

484
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles
a. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'A student or a pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. * [(Óf) een scholier óf student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either a student or a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount

If there are more articles present, on the other hand, both the inclusive and the exclusive seem available. The preferred reading of (485a) is the same (generic) inclusive reading that we find in (484a), which might be the preferred form for some speakers. Nevertheless, the exclusive reading also seems possible, according to which two singleton sets are coordinated, with the predication in the main clause holding for only one of these sets.

485
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles
a. [Een student of een scholier, die weinig geld heeft/hebben], krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who little money has/have  gets  discount
  'A student or a pupil, who doesnʼt/donʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. ?? [(Óf) een scholier óf een student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either a student or a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'Either a student or a pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'

Although it is somewhat hard to obtain reliable judgments, it seems that in the case of the inclusive reading in (485a) the finite verb of the relative clause can appear either in the singular or in the plural. This is unexpected: since we are dealing with disjunctive coordination of two singular elements, we would expect the finite verb of the relative clause to be in the singular, just like the finite verb of the main clause. Note in this connection that the possibility of adding the adverbial elements allebei'both' in (486) suggests that the plural form must indeed be considered acceptable.

486
Een student of een scholier, die allebei weinig geld hebben/*heeft, krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who both little money have/has  gets discount
'A student or a pupil, both of whom donʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
[+]  III.  Generic/non-generic contexts

The previous subsection has shown that constructions with coordinated antecedent can be used both in generic and non-generic contexts. This subsection examines whether there are restrictions on the use of disjunctively coordinated antecedents that are related to genericity.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

Example (487) provides cases with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, which only allow a coordinated antecedent reading. The use of the present tense in (487a) seems to favor a generic reading, but (487b), in which the finite verb of the relative is in the past tense, shows that these coordinated plurals can also be found in non-generic contexts. In this respect, the examples in (487) do not differ from examples without a coordinated antecedent: De jongens die te laat komen/kwamen worden gestraft.

487
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
b. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat kwamen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  came  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who were late will be punished.'

The same thing holds for coordinated plurals with two definite articles on their inclusive reading: although the examples may be marginal for some speakers, example (488a) clearly prefers a generic interpretation, whereas (488a') has a non-generic interpretation. On the exclusive, two-set reading, on the other hand, the generic interpretation seems to be blocked: both (488b) and (488b') are interpreted non-generically. This seems to be a more generally property of sentences with exclusive disjunction. Recall that, for convenience, we no longer indicate the elided relative clause in the first conjunct.

488
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. % De jongens of de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
a'. % De jongens of de meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b. % (Óf) de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft
  either the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b'. % (Óf) de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  either the boys  or  the girls  who too late came  are  punished

      The (a)-examples in (489) show that disjunctively coordinated indefinite plurals cannot be used in non-generic contexts on their (preferred) inclusive reading, and, again, we see that there is no difference in this respect with examples without a coordinated antecedent: Jongens die te laat komen/*kwamen worden gestraft. The (b)-examples in (489) with the (dispreferred) exclusive reading are marginal at best: this follows from our earlier observations that exclusive óf triggers a non-generic reading and that indefinite plural subjects in examples such as (489) must be interpreted generically. These two requirements cannot be met at the same time.

489
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. * Jongens of meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late came  are punished
b. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  either boys or girls  who too late come  are punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
b'. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  either boys or girls  who too late came  are punished
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

Example (490) provides cases with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, which only allow a coordinated antecedent reading. The use of the present tense in (490a) seems to favor a generic reading, but (490b) shows that these coordinated plurals can also be found in non-generic contexts.

490
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
b. De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hadden, kregen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  had  got  discount
  'The students or pupils, who had little money, got a reduction.'

      Giving judgments seems a bit harder in the case of (491) and (492) given that the inclusive reading in the (a)-examples is marked anyway, but it seems that the generic and non-generic reading give rise to more or less the same result. The exclusive reading in the (b)-examples is preferred: these do not allow a generic reading, which is due to the fact that exclusive óf does not seem to be compatible with it.

491
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen/kregen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who little money have  get/got discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get/got a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de studenten óf de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen/kregen korting.
  or the students  or  the pupils  who little money have  get/got discount
  'Either the students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get/got a reduction.'
492
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles
a. ?? De student of de scholier, die weinig geld heeft, krijgt/kreeg korting.
  the student or the pupil  who little money has  gets/got  discount
  'The student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets/got a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de scholier óf de student, die weinig geld heeft, krijgt/kreeg korting.
  either the student  or  the pupil