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Predication
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A predication involves an Adjective Phrase (AP) that is predicated of an argument. A predication is also referred to in the literature as a small clause. The relation between predicate and argument may be modified by the outer structure containing them. The adjectival predicate does not agree in Frisian with the argument which it is predicated of. An example of a predication is provided below:

Example 1

Hja fynt Jan aardich
she finds Jan nice
She likes Jan

In the example below, the outer structure of the predication is bracketed:

Example 2

[Hja fynt] Jan aardich

Predications can be classified according to the syntactic and semantic type of their outer structure: complementive, supplementive and appositive.

Predications can also be classified according to the syntactic category of the argument and according to the syntactic category of the predicate. In the example below, the argument of the predication has been bracketed:

Example 3

Hja fynt [Jan] aardich

In the example below, the predicate has been bracketed:

Example 4

Hja fynt Jan [aardich]

There are three types of predicative constructions providing an outer structure, and an example of each of them is provided in (5) below. In a complementive construction, the presence of the predicate is required by the outer structure in which it occurs. So the copula verb in the outer structure cannot occur without the AP. In supplementive and appositive constructions, the predication is an optional addition to the outer structure and to a nominal argument in it. In appositive structures, the predication is not integrated in the syntactic structure, as signalledd by the comma intonation.

Example 5

a. It berntsje is dweiltrochwiet
the child is mop.through.wet
The child is soaked
b. Gurbe sljurke dronken by de sleatswâl del
Gurbe slid drunk at the ditch.side down
Gurbe slid down the side of the ditch drunk
c. Gurbe, dronken, sljurke by de sleatswâl del
Gurbe drunk slid at the ditch.side down
Gurbe, drunk, slid down the side of the ditch

The argument of the predicative AP appears in a few subtypes depending on its syntactic category. The predicate likewise appears in a few subtypes depending on its syntactic category.

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More details about predication can be found by following the corresponding links:

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