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Further uses of -self
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Pronouns with -self, as well as the form self by itself, are used in other functions than just reflexives. Pronouns with -self can be used in PPs that refer to the subject anaphorically (1a) and can be used adjectivally (1b), and occasionally as subject (1c), and self by itself can be used as an adjective (1d), a noun (1e) and as an adverb (1f).

Example 1

a. Waar elk vir homself sorg, word vir almal gesorg.
where each for himself care be.AUX.PASS.PRS for everyone care.PASS
Where each cares for himself, everyone is cared for.
VivA-KPO
b. Die teorieë ditself se status word verhef en 'n dogma word gebore.
the theories itself PTCL.GEN status be.AUX.PASS.PRS exalt.PASS and a dogma become.AUX.PASS.PRS born.PASS
The status of the theories themselves are exalted and a dogma is born.
VivA-KPO
c. Syself is gelukkig dat sy baie gemaklik beweeg tussen die verskillende registers van Afrikaans.
she.self be.PRS lucky that.COMP she very comfortably move between the different registers of Afrikaans
She herself is lucky that she can switch between the different registers of Afrikaans easily.
VivA-KPO
d. Die toetse self is baie betroubaar.
the tests self be.PRS very reliable
The tests themselves are very reliable.
VivA-KPO
e. As ons ou selwe ons lewe regeer, is ons naby ondergang.
if our old selves our life rule be.PRS we close downfall
If our old selves rule our lives, we are close to a downfall.
VivA-KPO
f. Gaan jy al die werk self doen?
go you.SG all the work self do
Are you going to do all the work yourself?
VivA-KPO
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[+]Pronouns with "-self" in other functions

The most frequently used context where pronouns with -self are used outside of being the typical syntactic object, is in PPs where it still refers to the subject reflexively. This usage can be found with all the expected person and number distinctions: first person singular (2a), first person plural (2b), second person singular (2c), second person plural (2d-e), second person honorific (2f), third person female (2g-h), third person male (2i), third person plural (2j-k), and third person inanimate (2l-o). Note that (2n) shows sigselwers with a human referent, indicating that it does not refer exlusively to inanimate objects, but sometimes also to people.

Example 2

a. Lekker gesels ek met myself.
nice talk I with myself
Nicely I talk to myself.
VivA-KPO
b. Want ons almal smag daarna om 'n bietjie tyd te hê vir onsself.
because we all yearn PN.to for.COMP a little time to have.INF for ourselves
Because all of us yearn to have a little time for ourselves.
VivA-KPO
c. Moenie te veel van jouself verwag nie!
must.not.AUX.MOD too much of yourself expect PTCL.NEG
Don't expect too much of yourself!
VivA-KPO
d. Maar kom sien vir julleself.
but come see for yourselves
But come and see for yourselves.
VivA-KPO
e. Julle maak net idiote van julself.
you.PL make just idiots of yourselves
You are just making idiots of yourselves.
VivA-KPO
f. Maar wat u siel die diepste sou verbly het, laat u heel dikwels by uself verbygaan.
but what your.HON soul the deepest want.to.AUX.MOD.PRT rejoice have.AUX let you.HON whole often by yourself.HON pass.go
But that which would have rejoiced your soul, you let it pass yourself so often.
VivA-KPO
g. Lolla steek vir haarself en Daisy sigarette aan en strek lank uit op die stoel.
Lolla light for herself and Daisy cigarettes on and stretch long out on the chair
Lolla lights cigarettes for herself and Daisy, and stretches herself out on the chair.
VivA-KPO
h. Wie gee uit haarselwe so onselfbewus?
who give out herself so unselfconsciously
Who gives out of her own so unselfconsciously?
VivA-KPO, adapted
i. Hy glo dat sy sukses in homself en sy finansies lê.
he believe that.COMP his success in himself and his finances lie
He believes that his success is in himself and his finances.
VivA-KPO
j. Lees self wat hulle oor hulleself en oor mekaar skryf.
read self what they about themselves and about each.other write
Read for yourself what they write about themselves and about each other.
VivA-KPO
k. Hulle raas met almal omdat hulle nie met hulselwe wil raas nie.
they noise with everyone because they not with themselves want.to.AUX.MOD noise PTCL.NEG
They are going off on everyone because they don't want to go off on themselves.
VivA-KPO, adapted
l. Ja, maar dit op sigself is 'n skande!
yes but it on itself be.PRS a shame
Yes, but that in itself is a shame!
VivA-KPO
m. Hierdie vertolking bring in sigself nie sonderlinge gevolge mee nie.
this interpretation bring in itself not singular consequences along PTCL.NEG
This interpretation does not bring along consequences in itself.
VivA-KPO
n. Nou wonder Skoppensboer by sigselwers: Rugby, vriend of vyand?
now wonder Skoppensboer by itself rugby friend or enemy
Now Skoppensboer wonders by himself: Rugby, friend or foe?
VivA-KPO
o. Dit is wel funksioneel en die resultate spreek vir ditself.
it be.PRS actually functional and the results speak for itself
It is functional, thought, and the results speak for themselves.
VivA-KPO

Other functions that pronouns with -self perform apart from the typical reflexive uses, are as syntactic subjects, but with the subject form of the pronouns (3a-c), and as adjectives in a NP (3d-e).

Example 3

a. Net ekself kan myself as beelddraer aantas.
just I.self can.AUX.MOD myself as image.bearer affect
Just I can affect myself as image bearer.
VivA-KPO
b. Net jyself bepaal tot hoeverre enige negatiwiteit jou gaan beïnvloed.
just you.self.SG determine until how.far any negativity you.SG go influence
Just you yourself can determine to what extent any negativity will influence you.
VivA-KPO, adapted
c. Nee, hyself was die oorsaak dat die deure van sy toekoms vir hom toegegaan het.
no he.self be.PST the cause that.COMP the doors of his future for him close.go.PST have.AUX
No, he was the cause himself that the doors of his future closed for him.
VivA-KPO
d. En ek moet sê ek my sigselwe het ook sterk daardie agterdog gekoester.
and I must.AUX.MOD say I me itself have.AUX also strongly that suspicion harbour.PST
And I have to say, I myself also harboured that suspicion.
VivA-KPO, adapted
e. Die teorieë ditself se status word verhef en 'n dogma word gebore.
the theories itselves PTCL.GEN status be.AUX.PASS.PRS exalt.PASS and a dogma become.AUX.PASS.PRS born.PASS
The status of the theories themselves are exalted and a dogma is born.
VivA-KPO
[+]Uses of "self"

The word self performs three functions. The first function is as an emphatic anaphoric adjective (4a), the second as a noun (4b). The other function is adverbial, where it modifies a verb to indicate that someone should do something themselves (4c-d).

Example 4

a. Die grondwet self het 'n kragtige meganisme geskep in die vorm van die Konstitusionele Hof.
the constitution self have.AUX a powerful mechanism create.PST in the form of the Constitutional Court
The constitution itself created a powerful mechanism in the form of the Constitutional Court.
VivA-KPO
b. Ons voorafgaande selwe en huidige selwe is inmekaargestrengel...
our preceding selves and current selves be.PRS intertwined
Our previous selves and current selves are intertwined.
VivA-KPO, adapted
c. Gaan jy al die werk self doen?
go you.SG all the work self do
Are you going to do all the work yourself?
VivA-KPO
d. Loop "copy & paste" maar selwers en lees die ding, dis nogals moerse snaaks.
walk.LINK copy & paste but self and read the thing it.is rather hugely funny
Go and copy and paste yourself and read the thing, it's very funny.
VivA-KPO
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