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Primary stress in Type-II monomorphemes ending on schwa
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Prefinal stress placement is dominant in monomorphemes with a word-final schwa. We distinguish between two types: Type I monomorphemes with a final syllable consisting of a single final schwa e or, alternatively, containing schwa followed by a word-final coda consisting of one of the following sonorants: /n/; /m/; /l/; /r/; /ŋ/: Type II examples, on the other hand, have a final syllable with schwa + obstruent consonants /k/, /x/ and /s/ as coda (e.g. -ig, -lik, -nis). As in the case of Type-I forms (see The short vowels of Afrikaans) the stress-assigning factor of syllable position is more important than other factors such as syllable structure or vowel quality and quantity.

The following articles should be taken into account as important background information:

  • Concerning the general stress pattern of Afrikaans monomorphemes: Overview of main stress
  • Concerning the criteria for classifying words as monomorphemes: Background to primary stress of Afrikaans monomorphemes
  • As an orientation with respect to all topics concerning stress placement in Afrikaans monomorphemes, the following reference list should be consulted:

    (De Stadler 1981; Combrink and De Stadler 1987; De Stadler 1991; De Villiers 1965; De Villiers and Ponelis 1992; Lee 1963; Le Roux 1936; Le Roux and Pienaar 1927; Lubbe 1993; Wissing 1971; Wissing 1987; Wissing 1988; Wissing 1989; Wissing 1991; Wissing 2017)

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    In this section, we provide evidence for across-the-board penultimate stress placement in monomorphemes ending in pseudo suffixes of the Type II kind i.e. having a schwa as nucleus followed by a single obstruent consonant as word-final coda, as found in the three pseudo-affixes -ig, -lik, and -nis. The focus on these three specific suffixes is simply by way of demonstrating the importance of syllable position in terms of stress-assignment; they are not the complete set of syllables of this type. Examples and discussion follow beneath; examples are provided in Extra, followed by notes (in Note) where applicable.

    In the following three sets of Extras, lists of monomorphemes containing the three pseudo suffixes -ig, -lik, and -nis are presented.

    Table 1: The pseudo suffix -ig
    Examples
    aaklig getuig kranig skigtig
    aardig gewig kundig slordig
    allig gewrig lastig snedig
    berig gierig ledig stadig
    besig gretig lenig statig
    betig guitig menig stewig
    bitsig gulsig mollig stuitig
    bondig heftig mondig suinig
    bonkig heilig nietig vaardig
    danig hewig nodig vadsig
    deftig hitsig nuttig veilig
    drassig hitte ontwrig verrig
    driftig innig oortuig vestig
    dynsig kamstig orig vinnig
    egalig komtig plegtig weinig
    ewewig karig rêrig welig
    ewig koddig salig wragtig
    gedig kondig sedig wysig

    Table 2: Multisyllabic examples of pseudo suffix -ig
    Examples
    agtelosig ewewydig naburig regverdig versigtig
    agterstallig gesellig netelig selfstandig vervaardig
    arglistig geweldig nooddruftig sorgvuldig verwerdig
    armlastig gulhartig noodwendig spitsvondig verwittig
    baldadig halsstarrig noukeurig standvastig volledig
    barmhartig hovaardig nuuskierig toenmalig voorbarig
    bedompig iesegrimmig omslagtig uitbundig voorlopig
    bedrywig inkennig onderhewig uitermatig voormalig
    behartig inwendig onderhorig uitwendig vrymoedig
    behendig kammakastig onnutsig verdedig vrypostig
    besadig lieftallig ontugtig verlustig vrywillig
    besoldig ligsinnig onverskillig vernietig wederstrewig
    boetvaardig manhaftig oorbodig verontskuldig weerbarsitg
    eienaardig milddadig parmantig verontwaardig wispelturig
    eweredig naarstig rampsalig versadig wisselvallig

    1. With respect to bisyllabic monomorphemes, be- and ge-, as in the case of berig and betig, and gedig, getuig, gewig and gewrig, act as true prefixes, and thus force the final syllables in each case to be stressed, as is normal in instances such as bekyk (from be+kyk and gesien (from ge+sien). In all other bisyllabic monomorphemes stress is penultimate. (See Primary stress in monomorphemes ending on Type-I schwa)
    2. Penultimate stress is also evident in multisyllabic monomorphemes. Notice that this is also apparent in words with four syllables (e.g. agtelosig, agterstallig and wisselvallig).
    3. As is the case with other types of monomorphemes where pseudo suffixes are involved, syllable structure as well as vowel quality again do not seem to be of special significance as potential stress-assignment factors, as stressed vowels occur freely in open as well as closed syllables and they may be short or long, high, mid or low, front or back as well as round or unround. All occur in prefinal position, even including neutral schwa as in the the words ligsinnig, onverskillig and versigtig. In comparison, schwa is unstressable in Dutch.
    4. Overall, as was the case with Type I examples, penultimate stress is thus the preferred pattern with Type-II words.

    The following list presents examples of both bisyllabic and multisyllabic monomorphemes containing the pseudo suffix -lik.

    Table 3: Examples with the pseudo suffix -lik
    Bisyllabic a-m Bisyllabic n-z Multisyllabic a-n Multisyllabic o-w
    billik naamlik aanvanklik ongelooflik
    deeglik nimlik afhanklik ongenoeglik
    eintlik olik afsigtelik onhebbelik
    haglik oomblik behoorlik onmiddelik
    heerlik oulik christelik onteenseglik
    heimlik relik dadelik ordentlik
    heuglik sinlik dergelik potsierlik
    konflik skaflik duidelik respektiewelik
    kwalik skielik eindelik sindelik
    lelik skiklik huwelik uiterlik
    maklik taamlik innerlik verganklik
    mislik vrolik klaarblyklik vergoelik
    moeilik yslik liederlik verwesenlik
    naarstiglik waarskynlik

    1. Prefinal stress is evident in bisyllabic words; relik is an exception.
    2. This syllable is mostly closed in bisyllabic forms. The vowels of the first syllable are long when occurring in open syllables.
    3. All but two of the twelve vowels of Afrikaans occupy the stressed position, rendering vowel quality not particularly significant in terms of determining stress assignment.
    4. In cases where the pseudo suffix is -elik, thus containing two consecutive (unstressable) schwas in nucleus position, antepenultimate syllables are stressed (e.g. in dadelik, huwelik). Other pseudo suffixes that determine the same pattern of stress-assignment are -enlik, -erlik and -iglik (in resp. verwesenlik, liederlik and naarstiglik).

    The examples in the following Extra contain the pseudo suffix -nis in bisyllabic as well as multisyllabic monomorphemes.

    Table 4: Examples with the pseudo suffix -nis
    Bisyllabic Multisyllabic A Multisyllabic B
    deernis adonis heugenis
    disnis antagonis humanis
    finis beeltenis kolonis
    kanis beslommernis kommunis
    penis chauvinis komponis
    pianis feminis ontstentenis
    tennis geskiedenis opportunis
    vernis hedonis paganis
    vonnis hegtenis

    1. Monomorphemes with -nis as pseudo suffix are rather rare in Afrikaans, and the suffix itself is not very productive as a noun-forming suffix. Examples, however, include cases such as kennis knowledge and hindernis obstacle, nouns derived from the verbs ken to know and hinder to obstruct.
    2. The bold-faced instances above constitute a similar type of noun to that mentioned in (1), although the stems of these words are not as easily decomposable. Words like sadis sadist, with pseudo suffix -is constitute an independent group; -is here is not the morpheme used in Afrikaans for male gender assignment as in, for example, motoris motorist (from the word motor), and toeris tourist, (from the word motor). Words like sadis and joernalis are rather true monomorphemes; it seems unlikely that non-linguists are able to trace joernalis for example back to the (seldomly used) word joernaal. See motivation of pseudo-derivations as monomorphemes in Background to primary stress of Afrikaans monomorphemes.
    3. In a few cases, antepenultimate stress is observable, namely in words like beeltenis, beslommernis and geskiedenis. Note, however, that in these cases the normal stress placement position – penultimate – is occupied by schwa, so that the first full vowel other than schwa from the right is stressed. Similar to the case with -lik and variations on it (see above), monomorphemes with pseudo suffixes containing only schwas like -enis and -ernis, are not stressable on the penultimate syllable and therefore antepenultimate stress is prevalent. See Primary stress in monomorphemes ending on Type-I schwa.

    References:
    • Combrink, J.G.H. & De Stadler, L.G1987Afrikaanse fonologie.Macmillan
    • De Stadler, L.G1981Die klemkontoere van die simplekse selfstandige naamwoord in Afrikaans: 'n NGF-siening.Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe21285-295,
    • De Stadler, L.G1991Oor die klemtoon van Afrikaanse simplekse: re Wissing.South African Journal of Linguistics = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde941-46,
    • De Villiers, M1965Aspekte van woordaksent.
    • De Villiers, M. & Ponelis, F.A1992Afrikaanse klankleer.Tafelberg
    • Le Roux, J.J1936Die uitspraak van Afrikaans.Huisgenoot2031,
    • Le Roux, T.H. & Pienaar, P. de V1927Afrikaanse fonetiek.Juta
    • Lee, A.S1963Klem in Afrikaans.Thesis
    • Lubbe, H.J1993Oor die klemtoon van Afrikaanse simplekse: re Wissing én De Stadler.South African Journal of Linguistics = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde118-17,
    • Wissing, D1987Klemtoon en tweesillabige Afrikaanse simplekse: eksperiment.South African Journal of Linguistics = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde5105-139,
    • Wissing, D1989Die klempatrone van Afrikaanse en Nederlandse simplekse: 'n vergelyking.Literator1050-65,
    • Wissing, D1991Is Afrikaans 'n inisiëleklemtoontaal?South African Journal of Linguistics = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Taalkunde947-57,
    • Wissing, D.P1971Fonologie en morfologie van die simplekse selfstandige naamwoord in Afrikaans: 'n transformasioneel-generatiewe beskrywing.Thesis
    • Wissing, D.P1988Die Afrikaanse en Nederlandse verkleiningsisteme: 'n vergelyking in metries-fonologiese kader.Literator962-75,
    • Wissing, Daan2017FonologieVan Schaik
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