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7.5 Definite quantifiers proper

The universal quantifier has the form aal ‘all’ or alle ‘alle’. They can be combined with numerals, whereas other definite quantifiers like älke ‘each’, wäkke ‘which’ require the numeral to be expressed in a partitive PP. The quantifier aal ‘all’ can be combined with the definite article. See also: Pronouns (6)


The relation between aal ‘all’ and alle ‘all’ seems to be as follows. Aal is used in the position of predeterminers, whereas alle is used in the position of determiners. In any case, it is possible for aal ‘all’ to combine with the definite article and the demonstrative article, as the following examples indicate:

Fon aal do Bome, do iek ploanted häbe, is nit aan anblieuwen.
of all the trees which I planted have is not one to.stay
Of all the trees I planted, not one survived.
Die Mezel fljugt aal do Bäidene an.
die Masern stecken all die Kinder an
The measles infect all the children.
Bie aal dät Täärsken is ‘n helen Bäält Bulster anfalen.
at all the threshing is a whole heap chaff to.fallen
A heap of chaff fell down with all the threshing.
Bie aal dusse Rubbele ap’t Ies kon nemens goud sköävelje
with all these wavy.bumps on.the ice can noone good skate
No one can skate well with all these ridges on the ice.

It is not clear whether aal also combines with possessive pronouns or with a full possessor NP, though one would expect this to be the case. It is not clear whether it can be followed by a numeral, though this would also be expected. Likewise the semanteme ‘whole’ should be investigated, and the behavious of aal and alle with respect to count and mass nouns. Alle is used in temporal expressions like the following:

Alle Dege, alle Mounde.
all days all months
Every day, every month.

Apparently the universal quantifier is preferred over the distributive quantifier, which is featured in the translation. This is also the case in West Frisian temporal expressions. In addition, alle is found in the phrase alle bee ‘all both > the two of them’. Use of floating quantifier (adverbial use) deserves further attention as well. A possible candidate for floating quantifier use is the expression: aan bie dän uur ‘one with the other’, which means ‘all’.

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