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Frisian has a few adverbial compounds consisting of a noun and an adposition. An example is berchop mountain-up uphill. The pattern is not productive. Stress is on the adpositional part, i.e. berchop.


Frisian exhibits some adverbial compounds which consist of a noun as its first element and an adposition as the second one. Hence, these combinations do not have an internal head, and are therefore exocentric. The pattern is certainly not productive. Only a few adpositions are involved, notably oan on, oer over, ôf down and op at.

The preposition oan on usually points to a direction, for instance in combination with wind directions, as in noardoan north-on northwards. Other types of direction may also used. An example is hikoan gate-on towards the gate, from hikke gate, with truncation of the final schwa. An intensifying semantics is found as well, for example in poatoan paw-on hard-working.

The preposition oer over is used to indicate a position. Examples are strampeloer fork-over straddling and skonkje-oer leg-DIM-over astride, in which the diminutive -je is a linking element.

Of down, itself a postposition, usually refers to a downward direction, as in berchôf mountain-down downhill and streamôf stream-down downstream. In contrast, the preposition op up indicates an upward direction, as in berchop mountain-up uphill, streamop stream-up upstream or keamerop room-up upwards to a higher room.

Next to the adpositions above there are a few idiosyncretic formations with om round, ûnder under and út out. These are earmke-om arm-DIM-round arm in arm, kopke-ûnder head-DIM-under (having a) ducking and planút plan-out plainly. Again we see a diminutive form -ke functioning as linking element.

The stress in adverbial NP-compounds is on the second constituent, i.e. on the adposition, as for example in berchop uphill.

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