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9.4.Adverbial use

The examples in (160) show that past/passive participles can sometimes be used adverbially. The adverbially used past/passive participles are normally part of more or less fixed expressions, which we have marked by means of italics.

a. Ik geloof eerlijk gezegd niet dat Jan komt.
  believe  honestly  said  not  that  Jan comes
  'To be honest, I donʼt believe that Jan is coming.'
b. Alles bij elkaar genomen kunnen we van een succes spreken.
  everything  together  taken  can  we  of a success  speak
  'All in all, we can speak of a success.'
c. In het algemeen gesproken gaat alles goed.
  in the general  spoken  goes  everything  well
  'Generally speaking, everything goes well.'
d. Normaal gesproken zou dit voldoende moeten zijn.
  normally  speaking   would  this  sufficient  must  be
  'Normally, this should be sufficient.'

Present participles can be used as manner adverbs, although it should be noted that is it is often hard to differentiate them from supplementive present participles; cf. Section 8.2.2 for discussion. Some examples are given in (161).

a. Jan liep fluitend naar huis.
  Jan walked  whistling  to home
b. Jan zat mopperend in een hoekje.
  Jan sat  grumbling  in a corner

For completeness’ sake, the examples in (162a&b) show that some past/passive participles have developed into prepositions or conjunctions that can be used to introduce an adverbial phrase/clause; cf. Komen (1994: Part II). Example (162c) shows that some present participles can likewise be used as prepositions introducing an adverbial phrase.

a. Gezien de klachten wordt de maatregel teruggetrokken.
  seen the complaints  is  the measure  withdrawn
  'Because of the complaints, the measure is withdrawn.'
b. Aangezien Peter afwezig is, wordt de vergadering geschorst.
  prt.-seen  Peter absent  is  is  the meeting  adjourned
  'Since Peter is absent, the meeting is suspended.'
c. Gedurende de vergadering mag er niet gerookt worden.
  during the meeting  allowed  there  not  smoked  be
  'During the meeting, smoking isnʼt allowed.'
  • Komen, J.A.M1994Over de ontwikkeling van absolute constructiesUniversity of AmsterdamThesis
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