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The spelling of consonants
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In general there is a one-to-one correspondence between letters and consonant phonemes. Complications arise because there are two digraphs, ch for /x/ and ng for /ŋ/, and because of the effect of etymological spelling.

Intervocalic consonants that occur after a short vowel (B-class vowel) are spelled as geminates, as in bakker/bɑkər/baker. However, digraphs are not geminated. Hence, we spell lachen/lɑxə(n)/to laugh, not *lachchen.

A survey of the spelling of the Dutch consonants is given in table 1:


Table 1: The spelling of Dutch consonants
Consonant Spelling Special cases
/f/ f ph (phoenixphoenix)
/v/ v v (veertigforty, vijftigfifty)
s c (centcent)
ç (façadefacade)
sc (scenescene)
sch (suffix -isch as in logischlogical)
z (zestigsixty, zeventigseventy)
/sj/ or /ʃ/ sj ch (chefchef)
sh (shillingshilling)
/z/ z s (analyseanalysis, fasephase)
/zj/ or /ʒ/ zj g (horlogewatch)
j (juryjury)
/x/ ch /
/ɣ/ g gh (yoghurtyoghurt)
/p/ p /
/b/ b /
/t/ t th (theetea)
/d/ d ddh (BoeddhaBuddha)
/k/ k c (cafécafé)
ch (christenChristian)
qu (quotiëntquotient)
/kw/ kw qu (quizquiz)
/ks/ ks cc (accentaccent)
x (taxitaxi)
/m/ m /
/n/ n /
/ñj/ nj gn (campagnecampaign)
/ŋ/ ng n before velar consonants (bankbank)
/l/ l /
/r/ r /
/ʋ/ w uw after ie (nieuwnew) and ee (leeuwlion)
/j/ j i after vowels (mooibeautiful)
ij in proper names (BooijBooij)
y (royaalgenerous)
ill (faillietbankrupt)
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