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Specific cases of cliticization
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The formal relation between function words with an independent and a dependent status can be phonological in nature − as with him/hɪm/ ~ 'em/əm/him −, but it may also be phonologically opaque, as with the pair hy/hi/ or hij/hɛj/ ~ er/ər/he. Although hy/hij and er have the same meaning, there is not a formal, phonological relation between them. Despite the different relations between the independent and the dependent form of function words, they all must be considered as independent, separate lexical entries.

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    phonology
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    morphology
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    syntax
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