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styp-
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The prefix styp- derives nouns on the basis of kinship nouns. The derivation refers to relatives without a blood relationship. Examples are heitfather > stypheitstepfather and dochterdaughter > stypdochterstepdaughter. The prefix shows quite a bit of formal variation, caused by assimilation and reinterpretation.

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[+] General properties

The prefix styp- takes kinship terms as input. Derivations with styp- refer to relatives with whom there is no blood relationship. It is used to refer to second parents, adopted children and children of one's partner. Examples of prefix derivations with styp- are listed below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
heitfather stypheitstepfather
memmother stypmemstepmother
bernchild(ren) stypbernstepchild
soanson stypsoanstepson
dochterdaughter stypdochterstepdaughter
broerbrother stypbroerstepbrother
sustersister stypsusterstepsister
Nowadays most Frisian speakers say styf- instead of styp-. This process is described below.

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Variation

Besides the form styp-, some other variants can be found: stie-, stiep-, styf-, stief- and stien-. The spelling <y> stands for short [i], <ie> represents a rising diphthong [jI].

The forms with final [p] are the oldest, cf. Old Frisian stiap. The final [f] is probably a product of regressive assimilation, arisen from stiepfaarstepfather > stieffaar. The form stie- is only found in the obsolete forms stiemoerstepmother and stiefaarstepfather.

In all likelihood, the inorganic [n] in the variant stien- can be explained by the following process. Because of total assimilation of the [p] in words like stiepbernstepchild > stiebern, language users could not recognize the connection with stiep- any longer. Therefore they might have correlated the distant kinship with a property of stienstone, i.e. its coldness.

Nowadays most Frisian speakers say styf- instead of styp-, probably under influence of Dutch stief-.

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x Variation

Besides the form styp-, some other variants can be found: stie-, stiep-, styf-, stief- and stien-. The spelling <y> stands for short [i], <ie> represents a rising diphthong [jI].

The forms with final [p] are the oldest, cf. Old Frisian stiap. The final [f] is probably a product of regressive assimilation, arisen from stiepfaarstepfather > stieffaar. The form stie- is only found in the obsolete forms stiemoerstepmother and stiefaarstepfather.

In all likelihood, the inorganic [n] in the variant stien- can be explained by the following process. Because of total assimilation of the [p] in words like stiepbernstepchild > stiebern, language users could not recognize the connection with stiep- any longer. Therefore they might have correlated the distant kinship with a property of stienstone, i.e. its coldness.

Nowadays most Frisian speakers say styf- instead of styp-, probably under influence of Dutch stief-.

[+] Phonological properties

In derivations the stress is on the prefix, e.g. STYPmemstepmother.

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Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:65). The formal variation is dealt with in Veen (1984-2011).

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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:65). The formal variation is dealt with in Veen (1984-2011).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Veen, Klaas F. van der et al1984-2011Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal - Woordenboek der Friese taalFryske Akademy
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