• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
troch-
quickinfo

The prefix troch- creates adjectives on the basis of other adjectives. Derivations with troch- have an intensifying function in relation to the base form. An example is droechdry > trochdroechvery dry.

readmore
[+] General properties

The prefix troch- forms adjectives on the basis of other adjectives. It is related to the preposition trochthrough. Derivations with troch- have an intensifying function in relation to the base form. Examples are given in the table below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
droechdry trochdroechvery dry
earlikhonest trochearlikvery honest
goedgood trochgoedvery well
minbad trochminquite bad
kâldcold trochkâldvery cold
siiksick trochsiikvery sick
swietsweet trochswietvery sweet
waarmhot trochwaarmvery hot
weaksoft trochweakvery soft
bedaardcalm trochbedaardvery calm
sêdsatisfied trochsêdtotally satisfied
jaloerskjealous trochjaloerskvery jealous
lilkangry trochlilkvery angry
knaphandsome trochknapvery handsome

The formation trochwietsoaking wet is lexicalized. This can be argued by the fact that the word trochwiet can be strenghtened itself, as in dweiltrochwietextremely wet or stronttrochwietextremely wet. The other derivations mentioned in the table above cannot be input for such further strenghtening, i.e. *stientrochkâldextremely cold or *strietrochminextremely bad.

[+] Further intensification by reduplication

However, further intensification can be effected by reduplication. Both occurrences of the prefix are concatenated by the conjunction enand, for example in troch-en-trochryp, although most often the historical form ende is preferred. We then get formations like troch-ende-trochdroech, troch-ende-trochlilk, etc. Some speakers also insert an /r/ before the second occurrence of troch-, hence as troch-ende-r-troch-, possibly an instance of rule inversion with respect to R-deletion. Even further intensification can be obtained by insertion of the particle weragain. This results in formations like troch-ende-wer-troch-ryp, troch-ende-wer-troch-kâld, etc.

[+] Phonological properties

Derivations receive primary stress on the prefix, for example TROCHgoed, TROCHmin, TROCHsiik. Some speakers make an exception in the word trochWIETsoaking wet, another indication that this word has become lexicalized.

[hide extra information]
x
Literature

This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:71-72). The lexicalization of trochwietsoaking wet is mentioned in Sytstra & Hof (1925:93). The phenomenon of insertion of /r/ in general has been observed by Hoekema (1959:72). See also Visser (2014:246-247).

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:71-72). The lexicalization of trochwietsoaking wet is mentioned in Sytstra & Hof (1925:93). The phenomenon of insertion of /r/ in general has been observed by Hoekema (1959:72). See also Visser (2014:246-247).

References:
  • Hoekema, Teake1959Oer de ûnhistoaryske R yn it FryskUs Wurk872
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
  • Visser, Willem2014Hoe stom is de stomme /r/?Philologia Frisica anno 2012. Lezingen fan it njoggentjinde Frysk Filologenkongres fan de Fryske Akademy op 13, 14 en 15 juny 2012243-268
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • d-deletion
    [74%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Consonant related processes > Consonant cluster simplification: Overview
  • Nasalization
    [74%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Vowel related processes
  • The phonotactics of Afrikaans
    [74%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonotactics
  • r-deletion
    [73%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Consonant related processes
  • Homorganic glide insertion
    [73%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • ûn-
    [79%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Prefixation > Adjectival prefixes > Adjective as base
  • alder-
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Prefixation > Adjectival prefixes > Adjective as base
  • General categories
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
  • -mannich
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Noun as base
  • witte-
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Prefixation > Adjectival prefixes > Adjective as base
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • 3.1.2. Modification by an intensifier
    [79%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 3 Projection of adjective phrases II: Modification > 3.1. Modification of scalar adjectives
  • 4.1.1. Overview
    [78%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 4 Projection of adjective phrases III: Comparison > 4.1. Equative, comparative and superlative formation
  • 5.4. N-ellipsis
    [78%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 5 Attributive use of the adjective phrase
  • 9.2.2. Modal infinitives
    [78%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 9 Participles and infinitives: their adjectival use > 9.2. Attributive use
  • 1.3.2.2. Semantic classification
    [78%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 1 Characteristics and classification > 1.3. A semantic classification > 1.3.2. Set-denoting adjectives
Show more ▼
cite
print