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-resom
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The suffix -resom can be used to derive numerals on the base of another numeral, for example: trijethree > trijeresomwith the three of us, threesome and fjouwerfour > fjouweresomwith the four of us, forsome.

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The suffix -resom creates numerals on the base of other numerals. Examples are given below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
twatwo twaresomwith the two of us
seissix seisresomwith the six of us
sânseven sânresomwith the seven of us
njoggennine njoggenresomwith the nine of us
tsienten tsienresomwith the ten of us
tolvetwelve tolfresomwith the twelve of us
The lower numbers (one, two, three etcetera) are more common as base than the higher numbers (thirteen, fifty, etcetera).

The suffix -resom[rəsom] is restricted mainly to written language. The suffix can be used to define the size of the group: trijeresomin/with a group of three. An example is:

Example 1

Wy gienen trijeresom nei it feest
we went three-SUFF to the party
The three of us went to the party

The suffix has a variant without initial /r/, as -esom, for example in fivesom, sânesom or achtesom, respectively derived from the numbers fiiffive, sânseven and achteight.

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x Origin

According to Tamminga (1973:159), the suffix -som, which we find in the examples above, is the same as the suffix -sum in examples like iensumlonely, redsumskilful and streksumnutritious.

This, however, is criticized by Buma (1974:93) who states that the element som developed from Old Frisian sum, which occurs in forms like twirasum, thrirasum, fiuwerasum, sexasum etcetera. Compare also Old English forms like preora sum, feowra sum, sixa sum, eahta sum etcetera, and Modern English twosome, threesome or foursome. Buma states that the Old English and Old Frisian element sum can be seen as an indefinite pronoun, meaning someone, a certain one, one, which has nothing to do with the suffix -sum as suggested by Tamminga. Buma notes that the denotation of these derivations has changed over time. In Old Frisian, a derivation like tuelewasum meant one of the twelve. Later on, it meant with eleven others, where Modern Frisian tolfresom has the meaning with the twelve of us.

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x Literature

This topic is based on Tamminga (1973:158-160) and Buma (1974:93-94).

References:
  • Buma, Wybren J1974Nijfrysk trijeresomUs Wurk2393-94
  • Buma, Wybren J1974Nijfrysk trijeresomUs Wurk2393-94
  • Tamminga, Douwe Annes1973Op 'e taelhelling. Losse trochsneden fan Frysk taellibben. IIA.J. Osinga
  • Tamminga, Douwe Annes1973Op 'e taelhelling. Losse trochsneden fan Frysk taellibben. IIA.J. Osinga
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