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Clause splitting and permeation
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Clause splitting occurs when the main verb is separated from its lexical projections by a non-main verb, as in (1a), and permeation occurs when the clause-final verb cluster is interrupted by a non-verbal constituent, as in (1b).

Example 1

a. Gerrie het gevra of hy die boeke moet bring.
Gerrie have.AUX ask.PST.PTCP if.COMP he the books must.AUX.MOD bring.INF
Gerrie asked whether he had to bring the books.
b. ?Hy sal miskien moet die boeke bring.
he will.AUX.MOD perhaps must.AUX.MOD the books bring.INF
He will perhaps have to bring the books.

Clause splitting in Afrikaans is reduced in comparison to Dutch by the fact that auxiliaries are always positioned after the main verb in the clause-final cluster, so that the following sequence is ruled out:

Example 2

*Ek weet dat hy die boeke het gebring
I know that.COMP he the books have.AUX bring.PST.PTCP
To mean: I know that he brought the books.

Splitting is also reduced by the leftward movement of past participles, e.g.

Example 3

Hulle sê dat die boeke gebring moet word.
they say that.COMP the books bring.PST.PTCP must.AUX.MOD be.AUX.PASS.PRS
They say that the books must be brought.

Non-verbal permeation is possible between various verb types in a cluster, but is categorically ruled out between a clause-final past participle and auxiliary, as in

Example 4

*Ons hoor.PRS dat hy die boeke gebring gou het.
we hear that.COMP he the books bring.PST.PTCP quickly have.AUX
To mean: We heard that he brought the books quickly.

A form of splitting occurs when a main verb is duplicated by topicalisation to achieve emphasis, as in (5a). Topicalisation is employed here to emphasize the importance of the action. In (5b) the discursive force of (5a) is matched by employing an adverb of degree.

Example 5

a. Sing sing sy graag.
sing sing she gladly
She is keen on singing.
b. Sy sing baie graag.
she sing very gladly
She is keen on singing.
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[+]Clause splitting and permeation defined

Clause splitting may be defined as the separation of a main verb from its lexical projections by a non-main verb in the same clause-final verb cluster, cf. Broekhuis et al. (2015:960). In (6) the direct object mielies is separated from the transitive verb plant by the modal verbs sou moes.

Example 6

dat die boer mielies sou moes geplant het
that.COMP the farmer maize will.AUX.MOD.PRT must.AUX.MOD.PRT plant.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that the farmer would have had to plant maize

Permeation can be defined as the intrusion of a non-verbal constituent in a clause-final verb cluster. In (7) the verb cluster sou moes geplant het is divided by the prepositional phrase in die lente.

Example 7

dat die boer sou moes in die lente geplant het
that.COMP the farmer will.AUX.MOD.PRT must.AUX.MOD.PRT in the spring plant.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that the farmer would have had to plant in spring
[+]Clause splitting

The basic order of the clause-final verb cluster in Afrikaans is assumed to be as in (8). The presence of an auxiliary in the cluster requires the main verb it governs to surface as a past participle.

Example 8

MODAL VERB(S) – LEXICAL VERB(S) – AUXILIARY VERB(S)

The inadmissibility of having an auxiliary preceding a participle in Afrikaans as in (9), a sequence occurring frequently in northern Dutch, generally prohibits a main verb from being separated from a projection such as a direct object.

Example 9

*dat die boer mielies het geplant
that.COMP the farmer maize have.AUX plant.PST.PTCP
To mean: that the farmer planted maize

On the other hand the inseparability of Afrikaans final het from the past participle it governs, separates the main verb from non-verbal constituents in the presence of modal verbs, e.g.

Example 10

dat die boer mielies moes geplant het
that.COMP the farmer maize must.AUX.MOD.PRT plant.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that the farmer should have planted maize

With auxiliaries other than het, such as word, a split is often avoided through a process of leftward movement or scrambling, e.g.

Example 11

dat mielies geplant sou moes word.
that.COMP maize plant.PST.PTCP will.PRT must.PRT be.AUX.PASS.PRS
that maize would have had to be planted

Lexical projections may involve direct or indirect objects, verbal particles, complementives, prepositional objects and clausal complements. Objects, verbal particles and complementives are generally restricted to a position before the verb cluster, while prepositional clauses may precede or follow it, and clausal complements follow the verb cluster. As the main verb may occur at the beginning or end of, or inside the verb cluster, any of these lexical projections can be juxtaposed with or, alternatively, separated from the main verb. Juxtaposition and separation are demonstrated for every projection type by example (12) to (16).

Example 12

a. dat die boer mielies geplant het.
that.COMP the farmer maize plant.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that the farmer planted maize
b. dat die boer mielies moes geplant het
that.COMP the farmer maize must.AUX.MOD.PRT plant.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that the farmer should have planted maize
Example 13

a. dat sy die diamant moes uitgesoek het.
that.COMP she the diamond must.AUX.MOD.PRT out.seek.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that she should have selected the diamond
b. ?dat sy die diamant uit moes gesoek het.
that.COMP she the diamond out must.PRT seek.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that she should have selected the diamond
Example 14

a. dat hy die muur moet pienk verf.
that.COMP he the wall must.AUX.MOD pink paint.INF
that he must paint the wall pink
b. dat hy die muur pienk moet verf.
that.COMP he the wall pink must.AUX.MOD paint.INF
that he must paint the wall pink
Example 15

a. dat ons na die vakansie verlang.
that.COMP we for the holidays long
that we long for the holidays
b. dat ons na die vakansie kon verlang.
that.COMP we for the holidays can.AUX.MOD.PRT long
that we could long for the holidays
Example 16

a. dat sy verneem wie die prys gewen het.
that.COMP she enquire who.REL the prize win.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that she is enquiring who won the prize
b. dat sy verneem het wie die prys gewen het
that.COMP she enquire.PST.PTCP have.AUX who.REL the prize win.PST.PTCP have.AUX
that she enquired who won the prize

When two lexical verbs collocate, the non-main verb may separate the main verb from its projection, cf.

Example 17

dat die eienaar hulle die huis laat verf het.
that.COMP the owner them the house let.LINK paint.INF have.AUX
that the owner let them paint the house
[+]Permeation

The following examples show that permeation by a complementive is possible between a modal and a lexical verb, as in (18a), and between lexical verbs, as in (18b), but is marked between modals, as in (18c), and excluded between a past participle and auxiliary, as in (18d).

Example 18

a. dat hulle die huis sal beige verf
that.COMP they the house will.AUX.MOD beige paint.INF
that they will paint the house beige.
b. dat hulle die huis probeer beige verf
that.COMP they the house try.LINK beige paint.INF
that they are trying to paint the house beige
c. ?dat hulle die huis sal beige wil verf
that.COMP they the house will.AUX.MOD beige want.to.AUX.MOD paint.INF
that they will want to paint the house beige
d. *dat hulle die huis geverf beige het
that.COMP they the house paint.PST.PTCP beige have.AUX
To mean: that they painted the house beige.

Combrink (1990:222) provides the following example of a long permeation between lexical verbs:

Example 19

Ons het baie vinnig leer met handskoene aan werk.
we have.AUX very fast learn.LINK with gloves on work.INF
We learnt very quickly how to work with gloves on.
[+]Splitting by topicalisation

The action expressed by the main verb of a clause is emphasised by means of topicalising it, a process comparable to VP split in Dutch, cf. Broekhuis et al. (2015:1045). Though this is predominantly a verbal construction, it may also apply to adjectives, adverbials, etc., as in (24).

Example 20

a. maar ken, ken ek hom nie
but.CNJ know know I him not
but I really don't know him
J. Huisamen: Katryn, 2012, 138
b. Sy pa kan op sy kop staan maar boer gaan hy nie boer nie.
his dad can.AUX.MOD on his head stand.INF CNJ.but farm go.AUX.MOD he not farm PTCL.NEG
his dad can do his damnedest but he is definitely not going to be a farmer
J. Kruger: Die vloek, 2012, 255
c. Wegkom hiermee gaan hy nie wegkom nie!
away.get PN.with go.AUX.MOD he not away.get.INF PTCL.NEG
He is definitely not going to get away with this!
L. de Villiers: Kaapstad, 2012, 43

A verb may be duplicated in participial form:

Example 21

Gevang gaan jy gevang word!
catch.PST.PTCP go.AUX.MOD you.2SG catch.PST.PTCP be.AUX.PASS.PRS
You will definitely get caught!
B. von Solms on RSG, 2017

Duplication may entail morphological variation:

Example 22

a. En koop het hulle hom gekoop
and buy have.AUX they him buy.PST.PTCP
And they actually bought it
I. Salzwedel: Onvertelde stories, 2012, 16
b. Voorlê  hy jou voor.
before.lie lie he you.2SG before
It will definitely lie in wait for you.
P.G. du Plessis on RSG, 2012, referring to death

Example (23) shows topicalisation with ellipsis of the main verb:

Example 23

Maar staan sal ek nie voor haar nie, nie so heeltemal kaal nie.
but.CNJ stand will.AUX.MOD I not in.front.of her PTCL.NEG not so completely naked PTCL.NEG
But I will never stand in front of her, not so utterly naked.
F. Smith: Kamphoer, 2014, 113

The duplicating construction is also employed with categories other than verbs, e.g.

Example 24

saam gaan sy saam
with go she with
she is definitely going with
A.P. Brink: Philida, 2012, 110
References:
  • Broekhuis, Hans, Corver, Norbert & Vos, Riet2015Syntax of Dutch. Verbs and verb phrasesComprehensive grammar resourcesAmsterdam University Press
  • Broekhuis, Hans, Corver, Norbert & Vos, Riet2015Syntax of Dutch. Verbs and verb phrasesComprehensive grammar resourcesAmsterdam University Press
  • Combrink, J.G.H1990Afrikaanse morfologie: capita exemplaria.Academica
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