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-ast
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-ast, as in cineastcinematographer (a loan) and gymnasiasthigh school student (< gymnasium), is a stress-bearing non-native unproductive cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender denoting male persons, based on words and bound forms of foreign origin.

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-ast is a stress-bearing non-native unproductive cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender denoting male persons, as in cineastcinematographer (a loan) and gymnasiasthigh school student (< gymnasium). Various forms in -ast are loans. All -ast formations are of common gender, selecting the singular definite article de. Plural is in -en (cineasten, gymnasiasten), the diminutiveis in -je (cineastje, gymnasiastje) and often gets a depreciatory meaning.

The suffix -ist is stress-bearing: stress is on the suffix: cineast/si.ne.'ɑst/cinematographer (a loan) and gymnasiast/ɣɪm.na.si.'jɑst/high school student. As the phonological representation shows, the suffix is cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure.

(De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 226) suggest that forms such as fantastdreamer, visionary (cf. fantasiefantasy) are not derived by means of -ast but through another suffix -t. In any case, (almost) all complex words ending in -ast have a relationship with another complex word of foreign origin, but there is no one-to-one relationship between affixes.


Table 1
formation in -ast related form
cineastcinematographer cinemacinema
gymnasiasthigh school student gymnasiumhigh school
sarcastsarcastic person sarcasmesarcasm
enthousiastenthusiast enthousiastenthusiast (A) or enthousiasmeenthusiasm
fantastdreamer, visionary fantasiefantasy
scholastscholast schoolschool or scholastiekscholasticism
pederastpederast pederastiepederasty

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
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