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Background to primary stress in monomorphemes in Afrikaans
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The overall goal of the Taalportaal project is the construction of a comprehensive and authoritative scientific grammar of Dutch, Frisian and Afrikaans. At the same time, the aim is not to operate strictly within a specific theoretical framework such as, for example, in the case of phonology, generative or optimality phonology. At the same time, the description of the phonology of Afrikaans (or any language for that matter) cannot be completely untheoretical and, in what follows, applicable reference is made to all available relevant literature on a specific topic, regardless of its theoretical heritage.

As an orientation with respect to all topics concerning stress placement in Afrikaans monomorphemes, the following reference list should be consulted:

(De Stadler, L.G. 1981); (Combrink, J.G.H.; De Stadler, L.G. 1987); (De Stadler, L.G. 1991); (De Villiers, M. 1965); (De Villiers, M.; Ponelis, F.A. 1992); (Lee, A.S. 1963); (Le Roux, J.J. 1936); (Le Roux, T.H.; Pienaar, P. de V. 1927); (Lubbe, H.J. 1993); (Lubbe, H.J. 1993); (Lubbe, H.J. 1993); (Lubbe, H.J. 1993); (Wissing, D.P. 1971); (Wissing, D. 1987); (Wissing, D.P. 1988); (Wissing, D.P. 1988); (Wissing, D. 1989); (Wissing, D.P. 1989); (Wissing, D. 1991); (Wissing 2017)

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Afrikaans is not viewed here as a language displaying an initial stress pattern, as it is sometimes described e.g. by (De Villiers, M. 1965), (Lee, A.S. 1963). Here, instead, we adopt a Main Stress Rule (MSR), that maintains that stress in Afrikaans falls on either the final syllable of monomorphemes, or on the penultimate syllable. Only in a small number of subclasses is one of the prefinal syllables other than the penult stressed - usually the antepenultimate syllable.

In bisyllabic words such as winter /'vən.tər/do., stress placement is mostly described in the available literature as initial; in the current descriptions we define it as penultimate. Note that this helps in the analysis of multisyllabic words, such as minister /mə.'nəs.tər/do., in which stress is not on the initial syllable, but rather on the penult. The same analysis applies usefully to, for example, bisyllabic padda /'pɑ.dɑ/frog compared to multisyllabic monomorphemes also ending on an open final syllable such as patatta, jakaranda, abrakadrabra. In all these words stress is analysable as being placed on the penultimate syllable. From these examples, it seems clear that determining stress placement from the right edge of the word is the most effective approach. By sometimes referring to the beginning of a word (i.e. initial position), the elegance and uniformity of the MSR is disrupted.

In the following descriptions of specific topics, we adopt a synchronic, word-based morphology framework for the description of word-structure and stress assignment in Afrikaans. According to this approach, morphemes are not combined to form complex word-forms, but rather generalizations that hold between words are simply stated. Hereby we specifically depart from a perspective that the average lay-speaker does not, or cannot, tell whether the noun personeel is a simplex or a complex word, while persoon clearly is a monomorpheme. Although these two words are closely related, it is questionable whether the lay-speaker actively realises personeel is derived from persoon. Note that these words are independent items in a dictionary such as HAT.

Similarly, words that resemble derivations by means of "morphemes", here called pseudo-suffixes, are considered to be monomorphemes. Examples of this are begin /bə.'xən/begin, with the pseudo-prefix be-, and lelik ugly, with -lik resembling a true affix. For more examples, see Primary stress in monomorphemes ending on Type-I schwa, respectively Primary stress in monomorphemes ending on Type-II schwa.

In some descriptions of the stress patterns of Dutch, it is common practice to make use of Latin, French and Italian loanwords and names, because native words are too short to demonstrate, for example, the relevance of the important notion of the Three-Syllable Window ((Booij 1995); relevant native words of Germanic origin usually contain only one full vowel, an Afrikaans example of such a long monomorpheme with only a single full vowel other than schwa being onverbiddelik /'ɔn.fər.bə.də.lək/relentlessly. Consequently, personal names of a very low usage frequency like the following are cited in the Dutch literature as a means of explaining the stress patterns of this language: Ashurbanipal, Carvancevitam, Demosthenes, Erechtheion, Melanchton and many others (especially by (Kager 1989)).

In parallel to this, in the present description of Afrikaans stress, loanwords as well as well-known names of places and persons from indigenous languages such as Khoi, the Nguni languages (Zulu or Xhosa), or the Sotho family of languages (Southern Sotho and Setswana), are used. These names are often heard on a daily basis, such as on Afrikaans radio weather reports or news bulletins. Place names include multisyllabic ones like Bophuthatswana, Ekhuruleni, Empangeni, Ethekwini, Khayalami, Lerato, Malelane, Marikana, Modimolle, Mokopane, Mpumamlanga, Phalaborwa, Phutaditjhaba, Polokwane. Well-known public personalities’ names include Buthelezi, Holomisa, Komphela, Madonsela, Madiba, Mantashe, Malema, Mandela, Ramaphosa, Ramoloko, Zwelinzima. Such names, all ending on one of the short vowels (/ɛ, ɔ, ɑ/, but also short /i, u/) not usually found in this position in normal Afrikaans words , provide important means for the falsification of proposed stress rules (as propagated by, for example, (Neijt, Anneke and Zonneveld, Wim. 1982). (Kager 1989), for one, confirms the role played by imported words in this regard.

The already mentioned HAT, as well as the pronunciation dictionary Uitspraakwoordeboek van Afrikaans, were consulted frequently, supplementing and corroborating our own native knowledge and intuition.

As general background to the phenomenon of stress in general, read:

The above-mentioned background should always be taken into account when reading the more specific topics on the stress patterns of Afrikaans monomorphemic words.

A standard pronunciation dictionary  (Le Roux, T.H.; Pienaar, P. de V. 1967) and the on-line version of the Handwoordeboek vn die Afrikaanse Taal (HAT were consulted, and,  for examples of relevant monomorphemes, the VivA-Afrikaans Korpusportaal. The latter contains corpora of a variety of written texts and consists of more than 84 million words.

References:
  • Booij, Geert1995The phonology of DutchOxfordClarendon Press
  • Combrink, J.G.H. & De Stadler, L.G1987Afrikaanse fonologie.Macmillan
  • De Stadler, L.G1981Die klemkontoere van die simplekse selfstandige naamwoord in Afrikaans: 'n NGF-siening.Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe21285-295
  • De Stadler, L.G1991Oor die klemtoon van Afrikaanse simplekse: re Wissing.South African Journal of Linguistics941-46
  • De Villiers, M1965Aspekte van woordaksent.
  • De Villiers, M1965Aspekte van woordaksent.
  • De Villiers, M. & Ponelis, F.A1992Afrikaanse klankleer.Tafelberg
  • Kager, René1989A Metrical Theory of Stress and Destressing in English and DutchDordrechtForis
  • Kager, René1989A Metrical Theory of Stress and Destressing in English and DutchDordrechtForis
  • Le Roux, J.J1936Die uitspraak van Afrikaans.Huisgenoot2031
  • Le Roux, T.H. & Pienaar, P. de V1927Afrikaanse fonetiek.Juta
  • Le Roux, T.H. & Pienaar, P. de V1967Uitspraakwoordeboek van Afrikaans.Van Schaik
  • Lee, A.S1963Klem in Afrikaans.Thesis
  • Lee, A.S1963Klem in Afrikaans.Thesis
  • Lubbe, H.J1993Oor die klemtoon van Afrikaanse simplekse: re Wissing én De Stadler.South African Journal of Linguistics118-17
  • Lubbe, H.J1993Die klempatrone van Afrikaans.South African Journal of Linguistics1149-59
  • Lubbe, H.J1993Klem in Afrikaans en die superswaar rym.South African Journal of Linguistics78-99
  • Lubbe, H.J1993Inleiding tot die algemene en Afrikaanse metriese fonologieReeksUOVS
  • Neijt, Anneke and Zonneveld, Wim. 1982Metrische fonologie — de representatie van klem- toon in Nederlandse monomorfematische woordenDe Nieuwe Taalgids75527-547
  • Wissing, D1987Klemtoon en tweesillabige Afrikaanse simplekse: eksperiment.South African Journal of Linguistics5105-139
  • Wissing, D1989Die klempatrone van Afrikaanse en Nederlandse simplekse: 'n vergelyking.Literator1050-65
  • Wissing, D1991Is Afrikaans 'n inisiëleklemtoontaal?South African Journal of Linguistics947-57
  • Wissing, D.P1971Fonologie en morfologie van die simplekse selfstandige naamwoord in Afrikaans: 'n transformasioneel-generatiewe beskrywing.Buijten & Schipperheijn. Vrije Universiteit.Thesis
  • Wissing, D.P1988Die Afrikaanse en Nederlandse verkleiningsisteme: 'n vergelyking in metries-fonologiese kader.Literator962-75
  • Wissing, D.P1988Abrakadabra: die klem van multisillabige Afrikaanse simplekse.South African Journal of Linguistics613-40
  • Wissing, D.P1989Twee- en multisillabige Afrikaanse simplekse: twee klemtoonreëls of net een?South African Journal of Linguistics7116-124
  • Wissing, Daan2017FonologieVan Schaik
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