• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Referential NP
quickinfo

The example below illustrates the use of a referential NP as a prepositional complement:

Example 1

omdat sy trots op Sarel was
because she proud on Sarel was
because she was proud of Sarel
readmore

The examples below illustrate the use of referential NP:

Example 2

omdat sy trots op Sarel was
because she proud on Sarel was
because she was proud of Sarel
Example 3

?omdat sy op Sarel trots was
because she of Sarel proud was
because she was proud of Sarel

For referential NPs, the difference in grammaticality judgement between left and right placement is small, and it depends in part on the lexical item involved. Thus, referential NPs may appear on either side of the following adjective:

Example 4

omdat sy tevrede met Sarel was
because she content with Sarel was
because she was content with Sarel
Example 5

omdat sy met Sarel tevrede was
because she with Sarel content was
because she was content with Sarel

However, left placement of referential NPs is excluded in cases where the referential NP intervenes between an intensifier and the adjective. This is illustrated below:

Example 6

omdat sy baie trots op Sarel was
because she very proud on Sarel was
because she was very proud of Sarel
Example 7

*omdat sy baie op Sarel trots was
because she very of Sarel proud was
because she was very proud of Sarel
Example 8

omdat sy tevrede met Sarel was
because she content with Sarel was
because she was content with Sarel
Example 9

*omdat sy baie met Sarel tevrede was
because she very with Sarel content was
because she was very content with Sarel

The referential NP can, however, occur to the left of the combination of the intensifier and the adjective:

Example 10

omdat sy op Sarel baie trots was
because she on Sarel very proud was
because she was very proud of Sarel
Example 11

omdat sy met Sarel baie tevrede was
because she with Sarel very content was
because she was very content with Sarel

The presence of the intensifier apparently makes it possible for the referential PP to occur at the left periphery of VP.

References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Referential NP
      [98%] Frisian > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Complementation > Quantificational nature
    • R-pronouns
      [79%] Frisian > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Complementation > Quantificational nature
    • Simple APs
      [78%] Frisian > Syntax > Nouns & Noun Phrases > Modification > APs
    • Negative NP
      [77%] Frisian > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Complementation > Quantificational nature
    • The PPI-B construction
      [77%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Expression of irrealis > The verb sille 'shall' > Participio-pro-Infinitivo
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print
    This is a beta version.