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Pseudo-participles are adjectives which have the morphological shape of participles. An example is given below:

Example 1

Flip is verwant aan Gerda.
Flip is related to Gerda
Flip is related to Gerda.

Their behaviour may be different from that of ordinary adjectives.


Pseudo-participles usually derive historically from participles. An example is the adjective verwantrelated, which has the morphological shape of a past participle of the class of ver- verbs. Pseudo-participles are different from ordinary adjectives in that they allow or even prefer stranded prepositions on the left:

Example 2

Hy is nou verwant aan hulle,
he is closely to them related
He is closely related to them.
Example 3

?wat hy nou verwant is aan
who he closely related is to
to whom he is closely related

Not every pseudo-participle behaves like this. The pseudo-participle benoudanxious prefers to have a referential prepositional complement on the right, like ordinary adjectives:

Example 4

*daar is hy baie oor benoud
there is he very about anxious
about that he is very anxious
Example 5

sy toekoms is hy baie benoud oor
his future is he very anxious about
about which he is very anxious.
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