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Universal NP

Universal NPs, like negative NPs, may occur (together with the PP) to the left of the adjective, as in the example below:

Example 1

Sy is sommer vir almal kwaad.
she is simply for everybody cross
She is simply cross with everybody.

However, placement may also be determined by emphasis, either fronting or end-stress, as illustrated by the following example:

Example 2

salig onbewus van alles
blissfully unaware of everything
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As in the case of negative NPs, universal NPs may be placed to either the left or the right of the adjective. Examples of both placements are:

Example 3

Ek was so lank uitgesluit van alles.
I was so long barred from everything
I was barred from everything for so long.
Example 4

wanneer jy met alles vertroud is
when you with everything familiar are
when you are familiar with everything

Linear order constraints are applicable, however, in the case of relative clauses (cf. the section on question-word NPs):

Example 5

Jupiter, vir wie almal bang is
Jupiter, for whom everybody afraid is
Jupiter, of whom everybody is afraid
Example 6

Iets het gebeur waarvan almal onbewus was.
something has happened wh-of everybody unaware was
Something happened of which everybody was unaware.

Negativisation of universal NPs in Afrikaans (somewhat different from Dutch, in which the negative R-pronoun nergensnowhere is used) is restricted to the utilisation of a negative indefinite pronoun, which is illustrated by the following sentences:

Example 7

Hy is met alles tevrede.
he is with everything satisfied
He is satisfied with everything.
Example 8

Hy is met niks tevrede nie.
he is with nothing satisfied NEG
He is satisfied with nothing.
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