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AP with PP as complement
quickinfo

A prepositional phrase may be omitted on semantic grounds without affecting the basic meaning of the adjective, and particularly with reference to implication. In the following example, the meaning of the sentence without the PP is implied by the full sentence:

Example 1

Wanda is kwaad [vir Hendrik].
Wanda be.PRS angry [for Hendrik]
Wanda is angry [at Hendrik].

However, if the adjective combines with particular PPs, the meaning of the independent adjective is changed and co-determined by the PP, which is not optional in such constructions. Compare the following examples:

Example 2

Ek is mal oor die kleurkombinasie.
I be.PRS mad over the colour.combination
I am crazy about the colour combination.

This sentence does not imply the shortened version:

Example 3

Ek is mal.
I be.PRS mad.
I am crazy.

Adjectives that form part of idiomatic combinations, as in example (2) above, tend to require an animate subject – although there are exceptions. Compare the following examples:

Example 4

Die gehoor is gaande oor die stuk.
the audience be.PRS going over the piece
The audience is raving about the play.
Example 5

*Dit is gaande oor die stuk.
*it be.PRS going over the piece
*It is raving about the play.
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Optionality of PP

From a semantic point of view, omission of the PP is optional if the expression without the PP is implied by the expression containing the PP. In the sentences below, the PP adds an optional component of meaning to, or modifies, the basic predicate and does not change the denotation of the adjective:

Example 6

Wanda is kwaad [vir Hendrik].
Wanda be.PRS angry [for Hendrik]
Wanda is angry [at Hendrik].
Example 7

Talle mense was verbaas [oor die besluit].
many people be.PRT surprised [over the decision]
Many people were surprised [at the decision].
Example 8

Die Presidensie is skuldig [aan wanbesteding].
the Presidency be.PRS guilty [to misappropriation]
The Presidency is guilty [of misappropriation].

On the other hand, if this implication relation does not exist, and the denotation of the adjective in the basic predicate (without the PP) deviates from the adjective phrase inclusive of the PP, the PP can be said to complement the adjective, as

Example 9

Jy is reeds bekend met die voorskrifte.
you be.PRS already known with the instructions
You are already familiar with the instructions.
Example 10

voedsel ryk aan koolhidrate
foodstuffs rich to carbohydrates
foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates

In the two examples above, the primary meaning of the adjectives bekend and ryk has either been changed radically, as in bekend, which, on its own, could mean famous/well-known, but here obtains a metaphorical or more specific referential value, as in ryk which, used in isolation, normally means rich, with the connotation 'affluent'.

Animacy

Adjectives that form part of idiomatic combinations, as in example (2) above, tend to require an animate subject – although there are exceptions. Compare the examples provided in the Quick Info section above:

Example 11

Die gehoor is gaande oor die stuk.
the audience be.PRS going over the piece
The audience is raving about the play.
Example 12

*Dit is gaande oor die stuk.
*it be.PRS going over the piece
*It is raving about the play.

However, many idiomatic expressions with an inanimate subject combine an adjective with a PP-complement, as in

Example 13

al gaan dié boek mank aan 'n aantal gebreke
although goes this book crippled to a number.of shortcomings
although this book suffers from a number of shortcomings

Choice of preposition

The choice of the preposition is not always predictable on semantic grounds, as a comparison between the Afrikaans and English examples below illustrates. However, deverbal adjectives, that is, those adjectives which are related to verbs, take the same preposition as the corresponding verb:

Example 14

Maar dit hang ook af van die begroting.
but it hang also off from the budget
But it also depends on the budget.
Example 15

Maar dit is ook afhanklik van die begroting.
but it be.PRS also dependent from the budget
But it is also dependent on the budget.
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