• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Adverbial conversion

Conversion of an adjective to an adverb occurs on a large scale in Frisian (in contrast to English, where adverbs are mostly derived by attachment of a suffix, i.e. -ly). In addition, verbs might also be converted, although it is not entirely clear whether this is a direct mapping, or an indirect one, i.e. as a two-step derivation of V > A and subsequently A > Adv.

[+] Conversion from adjectives

It is a well-known fact that many adjectives may be used adverbially. This change of category can be taken as an instance of conversion. In the examples below we see an adjective that modifies a Verb Phrase (VP), Adjective Phrase (AP) and Adposition Phrase (PP), and hence acts as an adverb:

Example 1

Hy stekt fluch de dyk oer
he puts quick the street over
He quickly crosses the street
Example 2

swier mishipt
heavy handicapped
severely handicapped
Example 3

ticht by de tsjerke
close at the church
close to the church

If an adjective is modified, then the adverb is often extended by the emphatic marker -e.

The adverbial use of adjectives has many syntactic ramifications, and is therefore treated more extensively in the part on Frisian syntax.

[+] Conversion from verbs

Conversion from verbs to adverbs is restricted to participles, both present and past. As these are also the only verbal categories that are able to convert to adjectives, and bearing in mind that adjectives as such may also undergo conversion to adverbs, it is an open question whether conversion of verbs to adverbs really exists. However this may be, we see participles used as adverbs, for example:

Example 4

Hja gong fytsend nei hûs ta
she went cycling to home to
She went home cycling
Example 5

Ferbûke sette er ôf
Disconcerted set he off
He left disconcerted

Present participles are strikingly popular in their function as intensifying modifiers of adjectives, as in skitende benaudshitting-EMP afraidvery afraid or springende lilkspringing-EMP angryvery angry.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

Present participles used as intensifying adverbs are the subject of a study by Van der Kuip (2011).

  • Kuip, Frits J. van der2011Fuortsettende mulwurden as yntinsivearjende bywurden yn it FryskUs wurk: tydskrift foar Frisistyk60139-157
Suggestions for further reading ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Emphasis
    [72%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • -s
    [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
  • Emphasis
    [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adverbs
  • Ellipsis
    [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • Word formation
    [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation
Show more ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Characteristics and classification
    [78%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases
  • Other constructions
    [71%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Modification and Degree Quantification
  • The regular passive
    [70%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3. Alternations > 3.2 Alternations involving the external argument > 3.2.1 Passivisation
  • Root semantics
    [70%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
  • Mood
    [69%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
Show more ▼