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The orthography of Dutch
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The orthography of Dutch makes use of the Roman alphabet. There is no complete one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and letters (or graphemes) due to the following factors:

  • Dutch has more phonemes than available letters. This applies in particular to vowels. For instance, there is only one letter o whereas there is both a short vowel [ɔ] and a long vowel [o]. The diagraph oe is used for representing the phoneme /u/, as the letter u is used for representing a different phoneme, the /ʏ/, as in putwell.
  • Dutch orthography may reflect the historical origin of a word. For instance, the letter c in centcent stands for /s/ which reflects the Latin origin of this word. This is called the Principle of Etymology.
  • Dutch orthography may reflect a more abstract phonological form of a word than the actual phonetic form. For instance, the spelling of the word hoed[hut] with a final d is a representation of the abstract ('underlying') form /hud/ which surfaces in the plural form hoeden[hudən]. This is called the principle of uniformity.
  • Dutch orthography may represent verbal endings that are not realized phonetically due to phonological constraints. For instance, the third person singular present-tense form of the verb wendento turn is wendt[wɛnt], with a final letter t that is not pronounced: a syllable-final sequence /dt/ is realized as [t]. This is called the principle of analogy.

References:
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    phonology
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    morphology
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    • -schap (de)
      [55%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
    • -heid
      [53%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
    • -ing
      [50%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
    • -achtig
      [50%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
    • Construction-dependent morphology
      [50%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation
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        syntax
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