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-euse
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-euse/'ø.zə/ is a stress-bearing non-native cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender, usually the feminine counterparts of agent nouns based on the suffix eur, e.g. masseusefemale masseur (cf. masseurmasseur). There are also a few instrument names in -euse, without a corresponding formation in -eur, e.g. friteusedeep frying pan and tondeuseclippers, that are loans from French. Plurals are formed with -s.

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-euse/'ø.zə/ is a non-native suffix found in nouns of common gender, selecting the definite singular article de. -euse formations are the feminine counterparts of agent nouns based on the non-native suffix -eur. The suffix competes with -rice that also corresponds to the suffix -eur (and -or), but where the stem shows allomorphy, resulting in sequences (a)teur and (a)tor.

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Alternatively, De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 209, 211) suggest that the suffixes -(-at)eur and -(at)or are best analyzed as combinations of the affixes -at (which does not occur independently, and does not have a clear contribution to the semantics) and -eur and -or, respectively.

Cases such as aborteusefemale abortionist are not counterexamples to this generalization, as <t> is part of the stem here. Some forms in -eur such as amateuramateur have no female form at all. Various forms in -euse may be direct loans from French.
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De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 212) note that the forms ambassadricefemale embassador (rather than *ambassadeuse), enquêtricefemale investigator (instead of *enquêteuse), and rapportricefemale rapporteur (and not *rapporteuse) are exceptional. ingenieurefemale engineer is the only word in which Germanic -e is attached to the non-native suffix -eur.

There are a few object names in -euse (without a corresponding form in -eur) such as friteusedeep frying pan (a recent loan from French, cf. Etymologiebank) and the nineteenth century loans tondeuseclippers (cf. Etymologiebank) and gazeusesoda drink (that started as an adjective limonade gazeuselemonade gassified, cf. Etymologiebank) (Van der Sijs 2010).

The suffix is stress-bearing (stress on the first syllable of the suffix) and cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure (aborteuseabort-euse/a.bɔr.'tø.zə/). Forms in -euse do occur as righthand parts of nominal compounds (sportmasseusefemale sports masseur) but not as lefthand parts, and they cannot be input to further derivational processes: even diminutive formation (predictably with the allomorph -tje) is rare. Plural forms are in -s: masseusesfemale masseurs, friteusesdeep frying pans.

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Sijs, Nicoline van der2010Etymologiebank, http://etymologiebank.nl/
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