• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-rice
quickinfo

-rice/ri.sə/ is a stress-bearing non-native cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender, the feminine counterparts of agent nouns based on the suffixes -(-at)eur and -(at)or, e.g. directricefemale director (cf. directeurdirector) and organisatricefemale organiser (cf. organisatororganiser). Plurals are formed with -s.

readmore

-rice/'ri.sə/ is a non-native suffix found in nouns of common gender, selecting the definite singular article de. -rice formations are the feminine counterparts of agent nouns based on the non-native suffixes -(at)eur and -(at)or, e.g. directricefemale director (cf. directeurdirector) and organisatricefemale organiser (cf. organisatororganiser), that are best analyzed as derivations with -eur and -or on bases with stem allomorphy going back, ultimately, to intricacies of Latin morphology. The suffix -rice competes with -euse/'ø.zə/, which is found as the female counterpart of derivations in -eur and -or that have no stem allomorph in -at, e.g. masseusefemale masseur. This includes cases such as aborteusefemale abortionist where the <t> is part of the stem (plus a few instrument names like friteusedeep frying pan that lack a corresponding form in -eur). Various forms in -rice may be direct loans from French.

[hide extra information]
x

Alternatively, De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 209, 212) argue that the suffixes -(-at)eur and -(at)or are best analyzed as combinations of the affixes -at (which does not occur independently and cannot be attributed a semantics either) and -eur and -or, respectively. De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 212) list the forms ambassadricefemale embassador, enquêtricefemale investigator, and rapportricefemale rapporteur as not complying with this morphological restriction. cantatricesinger is noteworthy for the non-existence of a corresponding form *cantator; cantorcantor, however, does exist. mentormentor, quaestortreasurer and rectorschool director have a (more Latinate) feminine counterpart in -rix: mentrix, quaestrix and rectrix, respectively.

Some forms in -eur such as amateuramateur have no female form at all.

The suffix -rice is stress-bearing (stress on the first syllable of the suffix) and cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure, witness organisatriceorganisat-rice/ɔr.ɣa.ni.sa.'tri.sə/. Forms in -rice do occur as righthand parts of nominal compounds (kostschooldirectricefemale boarding school director) but not as lefthand parts, and they cannot be input to further derivational processes: even diminutive formation (predictably with the allomorph -etje) is rare. Plural forms are in -s.

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • -euse
    [88%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -eur
    [82%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -aal and -eel
    [80%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -aris
    [79%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -ist
    [78%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • Degree
    [74%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • Weak verbs
    [73%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
  • Number
    [73%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
  • Cardinal numbers
    [73%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
  • General categories
    [72%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
cite
print