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N > V
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Conversion of nouns to verbs is very productive in Frisian. An example is bondelbundle > bondeljeto bundle. Almost all imaginable meaning relations between the base noun and the derived verb may be found. Most input nouns are simplex, but this is not necessarily so. An example of a complex base is kloat-sek[[ball](N)[bag](N)](N)scrotum; bastard, from which can be derived the verb kloatsekjeto trudge. With a few phonologically based exceptions, all converted verbs belong to weak class II.

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Conversion of N to V is productive, at least for simplex nouns. The semantic relations between the base noun and the derived verb can be quite diverse. Broadly speaking, the semantics of this type of conversion can best be described as 'to V, with N playing a role in the action denoted by V'. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base Noun Converted Verb
hûshouse húzjeto live
kompjûtercomputer kompjûterjeto work with a computer
baarchpiglet bargjeto make a mess
jongyoung one jongjegive birth
kroade(wheel)barrow kroadzjeto wheel a wheelbarrow
seagesaw seagjeto saw
hoephoop hoepjeto play with a hoop
kealcalf kealjeto calve
jûnevening jûnjeto become dark
bêdbed bêdzjeto offer a sleeping place
flibeslaver flybjeto slaver
skroartailor skroarjeto be a tailor
tsjerkechurch tsjerkjeto go to church
michfly migjeto catch flies
kloetpunting pole kloetsjeto pole
sousieve soujeto sieve
besitevisit besytsjeto visit
eacheye eagjeto see
diggelpottery diggeljeto fall to pieces
leppelspoon leppeljeto spoon (up)
hamsterhamster hamsterjeto hoard (up)
tennistennis tennisjeto play tennis
Most of the converted nouns are simplex, but compound nouns also occur, such as fuotbalfootball > fuotbaljeto play football, sniebalsnowball > sniebaljeto throw snowballs, kloatsekbastard > kloatsekjeto trudge and húsman(litt.:) house man > húsmanjeto run the house.

As can be observed above, nouns convert to weak verbs that belong to class II, i.e. verbs taking an infinitive ending in -je. Exceptions are those nominal stems ending in [i] or the related glide [j] that occurs as the final element of some diphthongs. So, the noun skyski converts to the verb skyeto ski, which has the paradigm of class I, for example in hja skideshe skied. A verb like raaie (from the noun raai, a certain dance) is similar in its behaviour.

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x Dutch influence

Class I derivations after other final segments can be found in actual language use. As it typically appears that these verbs show a striking similarity with the corresponding Dutch conversion verbs, it may safely be assumed that these class I verbs are direct loans from Dutch. Examples are lakketo varnish (from lakvarnish, cf. Dutch lakken), reveto reef (from reefreef, cf. Dutch reven) or rouweto mourn (from rouwmourning, cf. Dutch rouwen). Moreover, these verbs also have Frisian variants regularly following the paradigm of class II: lakje, reevje and rouje.

[+] Linking elements or suffixes

Hoekstra (1998:153-154) argues that the nominal base that is to be converted may be extended by a linking element. However, we have decided here to treat these elements as suffixes, as they consist of overt linguistic material. Moreover, subsuming such derivations under the heading of conversion would go against the spirit of the idea of conversion as it is usually understood, i.e. derivation without adding extra material. The relevant suffixes (or "augments", as Hoekstra calls them) for the derivation of verbs on the basis of nouns are -k (and its allomorph -tsje), -ig, and also -ear, the latter taking non-native bases.

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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:152).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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