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-st
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-st/st/ is an unproductive cohering stress-neutral suffix found in nouns of common gender based on Germanic verb stems, e.g. dienstdinstservice, favour (< diento serve) and aankomst/kɔmst/coming (< komto come). Nouns in -st usually refer to actions or events, occasionally to the result (e.g. vangst of the dagcatch of the day). If applicable, plural forms are in -en (e.g. dienstenservices, favors).

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The suffix -st is found in nouns of common gender, taking the definite singular article de, based on Germanic verb stems that are usually simplex (vangstcatch < vangto catch). In most attested cases, the verbal stem ends in a nasal continuant (/m/, /n/ or /ŋ/). -st derivation are usually action nouns (the act or event denoted by the verb), sometimes they denote the result of the action (opbrengstoutput, yield < opbrengto yield).

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Complex forms such as aankomstarrival (cf. aankomto arrive) and opbrengstoutput, yield (cf. opbrengto yield) can be analyzed either as derived from the pertinent particle verbs, that is, as exceptions to the generalization that -st derivation only takes simplex verbs as inputs, or as compounds of the -st derivations of simplex stems with the particles aan and op, respectively. In the latter case, the parallel semantics between particle verb and compound can be explained by means of an appeal to analogy or in terms of a systematic paradigmatic relationship between compounds of the type Particle + Noun and Particle Verbs (cf. (Booij 2015)).

Forms such as kunstart, trick (< kuncan, be able to) and winstprofit (winto win) are lexicalized and have a specialized semantics.

vondstfinding (< vindfind) is the only case of a derivation with -st where the stem does not end in a nasal; the form is also exceptional in that vowel change has occurred (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 246). Note that the same vowel is found in the past tense form vondfound and in the past participle gevondenfound.

The existence of a form in -st (e.g. vangstcatch) blocks formation of an -ing derivation (*vanging); the nominalization of the infinitive, however, is not blocked (het vangen van garnalenthe catching of shrimps).

The suffix -st is cohering: it combines with the segments of the last syllable stem to form one syllable. Some -st formations have a plural form in -en (opbrengstenprofits), others not, probably due to the semantics. Countable -st formations have a diminutive form in -je (winstjesmall profit, dienstjesmall service, small job, kunstjetrick).

References:
  • Booij, Geert2015The nominalization of Dutch particle verbs: schema unification and second order schemas
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
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