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-iteit
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-iteit (/itɛɪt/) is a cohering stress-bearing non-native suffix found in nouns of common gender derived from non-native adjectives (absurditeitabsurdity < absurdabsurd) or roots (capaciteitcapacity) and occasionally from native adjectives (e.g. flauwi'teitsilliness (< flauwfaint, silly, weak)). Many -iteit derivations correspond with French formations with the suffix -(i)té. The semantics is usually rather abstract: the property of A. There is also a small, closed, class of nouns in -iteit with a more concrete meaning administrative area (e.g. admiraliteitadmirality). The plural form, if applicable, is in -en (capaciteitencapacities, admiraliteitenadmiralities).

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-iteit (/itɛɪt/) is a non-native suffix found in nouns of common gender, selecting the singular definite article de, often with a counterpart in French.

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Van der Sijs (2010) observes that French words in -té are usually realized in Dutch with the analogous suffix -iteit. The oldest loans, however, such as faculteitfaculty, have a different form (without <i>) that suggests a route via a Northern-French dialect; majesteitmajesty and sociëteitsociety, club may have yet other histories. Puberteitpuberty is a recent loan from French in which -té corresponds with -teit rather than -iteit (< Fr. puberté < Lat. pubertas).

De Haas and Trommelen (1993:261-62) distinguish two types of -iteit derivations, the productive one based on non-native adjectives yielding abstract nouns, and an unproductive one yielding nouns denoting some kind of adminstrative area like admiraliteitadmirality.
  • The suffix combines productively with non-Germanic simplex or complex adjectives: absurditeitabsurdity, frivoliteitfrivolity, enormiteitenormity, conformiteitconformity, continuïteitcontinuity, studentikoziteit (< studentikoosstudenty). There is quite some allomorphy, etc. (De Haas and Trommelen 1993:261-62) which can often be explained from analogy with French:
    • if -iteit is attached to a stem ending in /k/, /k/ changes into /s/ (written as <c>): artisticiteitartisticity < artistiekartistic, excentriciteitexcentricity < excentriekexcentric. The only exception is antiquiteit/ɑntiki'tɛɪt, ɑntikwi'tɛɪt/antiquity with an unexpected spelling and a pronounciation variant that is probably a case of spelling pronounciation.
    • the suffixes -air and -ain change into -aar and -aan, respectively, when -iteit is attached (a case of learned vowel backing): solidariteitsolidaritity < solidairsolidary, mondaniteitsophistication < mondainmundane; correspondingly, the suffix -eel becomes -aal before -iteit: criminaliteitcriminalitity < crimineelcriminal. The only exception is fideliteitfidelity < fideeljolly where *fidaliteit would have been expected. The same learned vowel backing occurs if -iteit is attached to derivations in -eus or -eur: these change into -os and -or, respectively: curiositeitcuriosity < curieuscurious, superioriteitsuperioritity < superieursuperior; exceptional are pompeuziteitpomposity and nerveuziteitnervosity (next to nervositeitnervosity).
    • if an adjective ends in -ier, this will change into -aar when -iteit is attached: particulariteitparticularity < particulierprivate.
    • in adjectives with the suffixes -abel and -ibel, schwa becomes /i:/: variabiliteitvariability < variabelvariable, plausibiliteitplausibility < plausibelplausible.
    • prevocalic schwa-deletion occurs when the base adjective ends in schwa: rigiditeitrigidity < rigiderigid, and also in integriteitintegrity < integerof integrity.
    There are a few -iteit formations on the basis of simplex Germanic adjectives: stommiteitstupidity, flauwiteitsilliness. Booij (2002: 95) notes that such coinings can also be used to create a jocular or a pejorative effect. rivaliteitrivalry (rivaalrival) is the only clear case of a nominal basis, but that might be a loan from French (rivalité) as well.
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    De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 262) call it noteworthy that -iteit rarely combines with native stems, but it fits the generalization (cf. (Booij 2002: 95)) that native affixes easily combine with native and non-native bases, whereas non-native affixes usually are restricted to non-native bases.

    Festiviteitfestivity has no corresponding adjective. If it is derived from the noun feest then there is change of vowel quality (/e:/ > /ɛ/) and (analogical?) insertion of -iv; according to Van der Sijs (2010) it is a loan from French (festivitéfestivity) going backt to Latin festivitasfestivity, revelry.

    De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 262) mention gemeniteitmeanness, shabby trick as the only case of a prefixed adjective as base (gemeencommon, mean), but that word is rarely found outside dictionaries.

    rariteitcuriosity is an old loan (Fr. raritérarity) that may have undergone a semantic development parallel to, and in analogy with, the cognate adjective raarstrange.

    Booij (2002: 100-1) notes that when a complex word contains both non-native and native suffixes, the order of these suffixes is always such that the non-native suffix precedes the native suffix, as non-native suffixes only attach to non-native stems. In general, it is the suffix that determines the subcategory to which a word belongs. Hence, if the last suffix of a complex word is [-native], the whole word will be [-native]. It will assumed therefore that this feature is percolated from the suffix to the dominating node of the complex word. When the last suffix is [+native], the whole word will then be [+native], and hence will not be available for non-native suffixation. The important theoretical implication of this account is that we do not need the mechanism of level ordering (with the level of non-native affixation ordered before that of native affixation) for morphological purposes.

    This account can also handle so-called morphological bracketing paradoxes. For instance, the noun ongrammaticaliteitungrammaticality has been derived from the adjective ongrammaticaalungrammatical, and this adjective in turn has been derived from grammaticaalgrammatical. That is, native affixation has preceded non-native affixation in this case. This is a problem in a theory of level ordering in which all non-native morphology is ordered before all native morphology. In the feature percolation approach outlined above, however, there is no problem: the adjective ongrammaticaal remains [-native] because the prefix on- is not category-determining, and hence does not make the word ongrammaticaal a native word. Therefore, it is still possible to attach the [-native] suffix -iteit to this complex adjective.

  • There are a few nouns in -iteit that denote some kind of administrative area, e.g. admiraliteitnavy office. The process is unproductive.

The suffix -iteit bears stress (Smessaert 2013: 164): integriteit[ɪn.te.γri.'tɛɪt]integrity (< integer[ɪn.'te.γər]integer). As the transcription shows, syllabification does not respect the morphological structure, that is, the suffix is cohering. The plural form of -iteit formations, if applicable, is in -en (capaciteitencapacities). -iteit formations easily enter into compound formation. The Dutch spoken Corpus (CGN) contains, among others, the following cases involving capaciteit: verbrandingscapaciteitincineration capacityziekenhuiscapaciteithospital capacity, capaciteitentestability test, capaciteitsopbouwcapacity building. Note the linking morphemes (-en- and -s-, respectively) in the last examples.

References:
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Sijs, Nicoline van der2010Etymologiebank, http://etymologiebank.nl/
  • Sijs, Nicoline van der2010Etymologiebank, http://etymologiebank.nl/
  • Smessaert, Hans2013Basisbegrippen morfologieBasisbegrippen taalkundeLeuven/Den HaagACCO
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