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-iek
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-iek/ik/ is a stress-bearing non-native cohering suffix found in abstract nouns of common gender based on non-native nouns (symbolieksymbolism < symboolsymbol) and bound forms semantieksemantics (cf. semantischsemantic), as well as in relational adjectives on the same types of bases (tiranniektyrannic < tirantiran; fysiekphysical cf. fysicaphysics). Noun formation is productive, adjective formation is not. There are also forms such as antiekantique and katholiekcatholic that function both as nouns and adjectives. Nouns in -iek rarely have a plural form; occasionally one finds in -en (e.g. kliniekenclinics, methodiekenmethods).

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The suffix -iek/ik/ is found in nouns and adjectives on the basis of non-native nouns and bound forms (roots); it derives from the French suffix -ique. There are also forms such as antiekantique and katholiekcatholic that function both as nouns and adjectives. These might be cases of conversion but it is unclear what would be the direction.

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De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 260) note that it is unclear whether nouns like politiekpolitics, katholiekcatholic and heroiekheroic are derived by means of noun forming -iek or that they should be analyzed as cases of conversion of the pertinent adjectives (cf. also Booij (2002: 137)). Following Halle (1993), Borer (2003), etc. De Belder (2011) and others have argued that such words, that surface both as adjectives and as nouns, are not associated with a syntactic category in the lexicon: these words only become nouns or adjectives in syntax. According to this framework, this is supposed to be the case for all open class words, i.e., nouns, verbs and adjectives do not exist as such in the lexicon.

The suffix carries the main stress of the derivation and is cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure. If the base noun ends in schwa, it is deleted: methodiek/me.to.'dik/method, methodology < methode/me.'to.də/method, satiriek/sa.ti.'rik/satyrical < satire/sa.'ti.rə/satire. As the suffix starts with a vowel, this appears to be a standard case of pre-vocalic schwa deletion.
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According to De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 260), we find vowel reduction in atletiek/at.lə.'tik/athletics (< atleet/at.'let/athlete) and vowel shortening in portiek/pɔr.'tik/porch (< poort/po:rt/gate). If the base is a noun of Greek origin ending in -ma, a /t/ is inserted: dramatiekdramatics (< dramadrama). An alternative analysis would be that a stem allomorph is used here: note that the same effect is found in formations such as dramatischdramatic, dramaturgdramaturg, etc.

  • Nouns in -iek usually have an abstract meaning: semantieksemantics, the science of meaning, symbolieksymbolism, the use, knowledge, science of symbols; they often correspond to adjectives in -isch (semantischsemantic, symbolischsymbolic). This use of -iek is productive. Given the abstract meaning of the nouns in -iek, they usually do not have a plural form; for derived, concrete uses, one may found plurals in -enmethodiekenmethods next to methodiekmethodology; semantiekensemantic theories, meanings. Nouns and adjectives in -iek can be input to other morphological processes, especially verb formation by means of the suffix -eer, in which final /k/ changes into /s/, written <c>, e.g. musiceren/my.si.'sɪ:.rən/to make music (cf. muziekmusic) and specificeren/spe.si.fi.'sɪ:.rən/to specify (cf. specifiekspecific).
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    De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 260) point at allomorphs -istiek (frisistiekfristics, the science of Frisian, karakteristiekcharacteristic) and -atiek (problematiekissues, problems, systematieksystematics), which, they hypothesize, consist of -iek combined with the suffixes -at and -ist, respectively.

    On the bases of the fact that fabriekfactory and rubriekrubric, section also enter into -eer derivation (which results in fabricerento fabricate and rubricerento classify, respectively, and which may be taken as a case of affix substitution) they suggest that these words might be formally complex.

  • Adjectives in -iek usually correspond to nouns in stressed -ie: energiekenergetic < energieenergy. The semantics is relational: pertaining to N, related to N. This use of -iek is not productive. There is often also an adjective formed with the competing suffix -isch: melodiemelody > melodisch, melodiek. Sometimes there is a clear semantic difference (kritiekcritical, life-threatening vs. kritischcritical, uttering criticism), in other cases there is not (komisch, komiekcomical). The overlap between the two suffixes is not complete (no *cyniek next to cynischcynical, no *unisch next to uniekunique). Adjectives in -iek show standard adjectival inflectioneen unieke kansa unique chance but usually there are no comparative or superlative forms, due to the semantics. They can enter into onther morphological processes such as noun formations with native -heid (specifiekheidspecificity)) or, more common, non-native -iteit (specificiteitspecificity, elektriciteitelectricity); note that final /k/ changes into /s/, written /c/. Adjectives in iek can also be used as nouns, denoting either persons (komiekclown, comedian, common gender) or objects (kritiekcriticism common gender, antiekantiques neuter gender).

References:
  • Belder, Marijke de2011Roots and Affixes: Eliminating lexical categories from syntaxUtrechtThesis
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Borer, Hagit2003Exo-skeletal vs. Endo-skeletal Explanations: Syntactic Projections and the LexiconThe Nature of ExplanationChicago University Press
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Halle, Morris & Marantz, Alec1993Distributed Morphology and the Pieces of Inflection The View from Building 20Cambridge, MAMIT Press111--176
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