• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Overview of the Frisian clitics

This topic provides an overview of the Frisian clitics.

  1. See Personal pronoun clitics.
  2. Articles
    Table 1
    Full form Clitic allomorph
    de/də/the (common gender) d'/də/ ([də])
    it[ət]the (neuter gender) 't/ət/ ([ət])
    in[ən]a(n) 'n/ən/ ([ən])
    Having schwa as their only vowel, all articles are inherent clitics. As to this, however, a further subdivision is called for:
    • since a word a) must not have schwa as its only vowel and b) must not begin with schwa, the forms it/ət/ and in/ən/ (and 't/ət/ ([ət]) and 'n/ən/ ([ən]) as well) are forced to find a host word, ideally on their left-hand side;
    • de/də/, it/ət/, and in/ən/, however, can occur in sentence-initial position; this also holds for their reduced variants d'/də/ ([də]), 't/ət/ ([ət]), and 'n/ən/ ([ən]), though they sound a little unfamiliar there;
    • 'e/ə/ is not allowed to occur in sentence-initial position.
    That de/də/, it/ət/, and in/ən/ can occur in more positions than 'e/ə/ is likely to be ascribable to the fact that the former (also) contain a consonant, whereas the latter consists of no more than schwa (the minimal member of the vowel inventory, see Schwa). This is why 'e can be considered a purer clitic, viz. a phonologically speaking more dependent form, than de, it, and in.
  3. There is a small class of function words which begin with the voiced coronal plosive /d/ (henceforth: /d/-words). Some of these are also members of the clitic classes I and II above. The following is an overview of these words.
    1. Definite article
      Table 2
      de /də/ the
    2. Demonstrative pronouns
      Table 3
      dat /dɔt/ that
      dy /di/ that; those
      dit /dɪt/ this
      dizze /dɪzə/ this; these
    3. Relative pronouns
      Table 4
      dat /dɔt/ that, which; who, whom
      datsto /dɔt+st+do:/ that you; which you; whom you
      datste /dɔt+st+də/ that you; which you; whom you
      datst /dɔt+st/ that you; which you; whom you
      dy't /di+t/ that, which; who, whom
      dy'tsto /di+t+st+do:/ that you; which you; whom you
      dy'tste /di+t+st+də/ that you; which you; whom you
      dy'tst /di+t+st/ that you; which you; whom you
    4. Personal pronouns
      Table 5
      do /do:/ you (subject form, sg., familiar)
      /du/ you (subject form, sg., familiar)
      dy /di/ you (object form, sg., familiar)
      dij /dɛj/ you (object form, sg., familiar)
    5. Possessive pronouns
      Table 6
      dyn /din/ your
      dines /dinəs/ yours
      dinen /dinən/ yours
      dinent /dinənt/ yours
    6. Adverbs
      Table 7
      der /dər/ there (in existential constructions); as part of a pronominal adverb
      dêr /dɛ:r/ there; as part of a pronominal adverb
      dus /døs/ so therefore then
      dan /dɔn/ then (referring to the future)
      doe /du/ then (referring to the past)
      doch(s) /dɔx(s)/ nevertheless, still, yet, all the same

Usually, word-initial /d/ triggers regressive voice assimilation of a preceding (voiceless) obstruent (see Regressive Voice Assimilation: type 1 and Regressive Voice Assimuilation: type 2). This also holds of the /d/ of the /d/-words. However, if the latter are preceded by (a word ending in) a voiceless plosive, their initial /d/ may show up as voiceless or, put differently, it may undergo Progressive Voice Assimilation (see Progressive Voice Assimilation: function words beginning with /d/), examples of which are given below:

Table 8
a with dethe Omdat de trein in oere fertraging hiebecause the train an hour delay hadBecause the train had a delay of an hour [omdɔtə] [*omdɔdə]
b with derthere Ik begryp der wat langer wat minder fanI understand there what longer what less ofI understand (it) less and less [bəɡriptər] [*bəɡribdər]
c with datthat Witst wol wat dat wurd betsjut?know.2SG all right what that word meansDo you know what that word means? [vɔtɔt] [*vɔdɔt]
d with dythat; you (object form, SG, familiar) Ik wit net wat dy man besieletI know not what that man inspiresI do not know what has come over that man [vɔti] [*vɔdi]
e with do/dûyou (subject form, SG, familiar) Híést do/dû dat wier net sjoen?had you that really not seenHad you really not seen that? [hiəsto:/u] [*hiəzdo:/u]
f with dit/dizzethis Hoe kómt dit no wer?how comes this now againHow on earth díd this happen? [komtɪt] [*komdɪt]
Wat dócht dizze man hjir?what does this man hereWhat is this man dóing here? [doxtɪzə] [*doɣdɪzə]
g with dêrthere It bliek dêr net mear te wêzenit appeared there no more to beIt turned out that it was no longer there [bliəktɛ:r] [bliəɡdɛ:r]
h with dusso therefore then Ik begryp dus dat ...I understand so, that ....So I understand that ... [bəɡriptøs] [bəɡribdøs]
i with danthen (referring to the future) Mar wát dan?but what thenAnd then what? [vɔtɔn] [*?vɔdɔn]
j with doethen (referring to the past) Hy griep doe de machthe seized then the powerThe seized power then [ɡriəptu] [ɡriəbdu]
k with dochsnevertheless, still, yet, all the same Mar Jaap dochs foaral?but Jaap nevertheless in particularBut Jaap in particular, right? [ja:ptɔxs] [ja:bdɔxs]
[show extra information]

See Progressive Voice Assimilation: function words beginning with /d/ for more examples and also for examples of the behaviour of the /d/ of /d/-words following a voiceless fricative.

Progressive Voice Assimilation being a word-internal phenomenon, the above realizations with a voiceless plosive are readily explained if it is assumed that the /d/-words cliticize onto the plosive-final host word to their left.

    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Weak verbs
      [59%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • Number
      [58%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
    • -k
      [58%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Verbal suffixes > Noun as base
    • Gender
      [58%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
    • Strong and other irregular verbs
      [57%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    Show more ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼