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Adverbs
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Adverbializing word formation processes tend not to be very productive because most Dutch adjectives can be used as adverbs without an adverbial morphological marker (e.g. recentrecent, recently). New adverbs can systematically be formed by means of a number of suffixes, such as -halve in beroepshalveoccupationally or -lijk in recentelijkrecently. Dutch does not have prefixes that productively form new adverbs, but new adverbs can develop directly out of words from other classes.

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New adverbs can be formed by means of a number of suffixes that are discussed in Adverbial suffixes. Dutch does not have prefixes that productively form new adverbs. New adverbs can, over time, develop directly out of words of other classes, e.g. the accusative form of the noun morgenmorning has become a full-fledged adverb morgentomorrow. univerbation is another important source of adverbs: e.g. desnoodsif necessary is originally a genitive noun phrase des noodsDet.GEN_MASC need.GEN_MASC(out) of the need. Combinations of modal particles may develop idiosyncratic properties in terms of semantics or distribution, i.e., word-like behavior. Cases in point are the negative polarity itemsook maaralso buteven and zelfs maareven buteven(Rullmann 1997), the modal particle wel eenswell onceonce in a while, sometimes(Zwarts 2002), the degree adverb nogalyet alreadyrather and the focus particle niet eensnot oncenot even; this process may be analyzed as another case of univerbation.

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Although most Dutch adjectives can be used as adverbs without an adverbial morphological marker (e.g. recentrecent, recently), this is not always reflected in the descriptive literature: according to Onze Taal , only one of the dictionaries consulted stated explicitly that recentrecent, recently can be used adverbially. The same source states that recentelijkrecently is also attested in adjectival use (e.g. De recentelijke aanval op de christelijke gemeenschap in Lahorethe recent attack on the Christion community in Lahore), but this is judged to be unacceptable. There are a few minimal pairs where the long form in -elijk is supposed to be used adverbially and the short form adjectivally, but not all prescriptive sources agree on the validity of this norm (Haeseryn 1997: 394), whereas corpus data show that many native speakers do not follow it:

Table 1: adverbs in -elijk and corresponding adjectives
bepaaldelijkspecifically, particularly bepaaldparticular, specific
respectievelijkrespectively respectiefrelative
vagelijkvaguely vaagvague

References:
  • Haeseryn, Walter, Romijn, Kirsten, Geerts, Guido, Rooij, Jaap de & Toorn, Maarten C. van den1997Algemene Nederlandse spraakkunstGroningenNijhoff
  • Rullmann, Hotze & Hoeksema, Jack1997De distributie van ook maar en zelfs maar: een corpusstudieNederlandse Taalkunde2281-317
  • Zwarts, Frans and Ton van der Wouden and Víctor Sánchez Valencia2002The aspectual significance of event particles Belgian Journal of Linguistics16175-208
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