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-ijn
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-ijn (/ɛɪn/) is a stress-bearing unproductive cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender, taking the definite singular article de, with a plural form in -en. Three groups of -ijn formations can be distinguished: person's names (augustijnAugustinian), inhabitant names (argentijnargentinian) and a few object names (woestijndesert).

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The suffx -ijn (/ɛɪn/) is found in nouns of common gender with a plural form in -en (augustijnenAugustinians, argentijnargentinians, woestijnendeserts). (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 197-8) distinguish three groups of -ijn formations:

  • person's names based on proper names, with deletion of final syllable(s) -us or -inus, denoting follower of base, e.g. augustijnAugustinian (< Augustinus), benedictijnBenedictine (< Benedictus).
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    In the case of religious orders, the feminine counterpart is in -es(se), e.g Augustinesse. (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 197) also point at forms like rabbijnrabbi, cherubijncherub, serafijnseraph and chirurgijnsurgeon, that may contain the suffix as well; the same might hold for stoïcijnstoic, libertijnlibertarian and begijnbeguine. The -ijn ending ultimately derives from French (Etymologiebank); proper names that end in /-ijn/ often correspond to a French form in /-in/ or a Latin form in /inus/ or /ina/, e.g. CalvijnCalvin (cf. French Calvin), MartijnMartin (cf. Latin Martinus) and MarijnMarin (cf. Latin Marina). azijnvinegar derives from Latin acetulum via Old French aisil (Etymologiebank), whereas dolfijndolphin derives from Latin delphinus via Late Latin dalfinus (Etymologiebank).

  • inhabitant names (argentijnargentinian < ArgentiniëArgentina), systematically on the basis of geographical names in -inië (SardijnSardinian < SardiniëSardinia), but also AlgerijnAlgerian (< AlgerijeAlgeria), FlorentijnFlorentinian (FlorenceFlorence), etc.
  • a few object names (woestijndesert, termijnterm, tamboerijntamboerine). A general semantics is hard to find here.
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    (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 198) also mention neuter nouns such as gordijncurtain, festijnfestivity and medicijnmedicine, drug that also have a plural in -en and that are to be considered formally complex on the basis of their phonological form. It is, however, hard to come up with a common semantics that can be attributred to the alleged suffix.

All -ijn formations have a diminutive form in -tje. The person denoting derivations can be input to adjective formation by means of -s ( Augustijns. Argentijns, libertijns, byzantijns). The -ijn suffix carries the main stress of the derivation it is found in: augustijnen/au.gus.tij.nen/Augustinians. The transcription shows that the suffix is cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure.

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
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